This Week In History January 12th

1072 Robert Guiscard conquers Palermo.

1072 Robert Guiscard conquers Palermo.

1094 Death of Caliph Al-Mustansir of Cairo (b. 1029)

1271 Otto II the Lame, Earl of Gelre, dies.

1276 Death of Pope Gregory X

1276 Gregorius X [Tedaldo Visconti], pope, dies.

1356 German emperor Charles I delegates Golden Degree.

1365 Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV assigns gold and silver mines and rights of coinage to princes and electors of the empire.

1429 Order of the Golden Fleece established in Austria-Hungary and Spain.

1430 Duke Philip the Good marries Isabella of Portugal.

1430 Order of the Guilder forms.

1475 Stephen III of Moldavia defeats the Ottoman Empire at the Battle of Vaslui.

1480 Birth of Margaret of Austria, Regent of the Netherlands (d. 1530)

1502 Birth of Hendrik Niclaes German/Dutch merchant/cult leader (Children of God).

1514 Complutensian New Testament in Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek and Latin finished.

1538 Birth of Louis of Nassau, Dutch general (d. 1574)

1542 Gerardus Noviomagus [Gerrit Geldenhauer], Dutch theologist, die at age 59.

1550 First sitting of “Vurige Chamber” in Paris.

1573 Birth of Simon Marius, German astronomer (d. 1624)

1607 Birth of Isaac Jogues, French Jesuit missionary (d. 1646)

1628 Birth of George Villiers, 2nd Duke of Buckingham, English statesman (d. 1687)

1635 Birth of Willem ? Brakel Frisian theologist (Reasonable religion).

1638 Birth of Nicolas Steno, Danish geologist (d. 1686)

1642 King Charles I and family flee London for Oxford.

1644 Birth of Louis Frantois, duc de Boufflers, French marshal (d. 1711)

1645 Death of William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury (b. 1573)

1645 William Laud Archbishop of Canterbury is beheaded for treason at age 71.

1654 Birth of Joshua Barnes, English scholar (d. 1712)

1663 King Charles II affirms charter of Royal African Company.

1674 Jacob de Witt Dutch mayor (Dordrecht)/Member of Parliament, dies at age 84.

1683 Birth of Gasparo Visconti composer.

1698 Death of Louis-STbastien Le Nain de Tillemont, French historian (b. 1637)

1701 Birth of Johann Caspar Simon composer.

1707 Death of Philibert, comte de Gramont, French writer (b. 1621)

1715 Birth of Christian August Crusius, German philosopher and theologian (d. 1775)

1721 Birth of Johann Philipp Baratier, German scholar (d. 1740)

1729 Birth of Lazzaro Spallanzani, Italian biologist (d. 1799)

1731 Charles Farnese becomes duke of Parma/Piacenza.

1738 Birth of Ethan Allen, American Revolution military leader (d. 1789)

1747 Birth of Abraham L Breguet French clock maker.

1754 Daniel Raap Dutch porcelain salesman/politician, dies at about age 51.

1754 Death of Edward Cave, English editor and publisher (b. 1691)

1760 Birth of Johann Rudolf Zumsteeg composer.

1761 Death of Edward Boscawen, British admiral (b. 1711)

1766 Birth of Louis Massonneau composer.

1768 Birth of James Varicick first AME Zion Bishop.

1768 Charles Cressent French court furniture maker, dies at age 82.

1769 Birth of Michel Ney, French marshal (d. 1815)

1775 Death of Yemelyan Pugachev, Russian rebel

1775 Jemeljan Pugatshov Russian kosak leader/”czar Peter III”, dies.

1776 “Common Sense” by Thomas Paine, published.

1776 Thomas Paine publishes Common Sense.

1777 Death of Spranger Barry, Irish actor (b. 1719)

1778 Carolus Linn?us “Carl von LinnT” Swedish botanist/explorer/”Father of Taxonomy”, dies at age 70.

1778 Death of Carolus Linnaeus, Swedish botanist (b. 1707)

1780 Birth of M Heinrich C Lichtenstein German zoologist.

1780 Francesco Antonio Vallotti Italian organist/composer, dies at age 82.

1785 Death of Heinrich Wilhelm Stiegel in Charming Forge, Pennsylvania, USA; built two ironworks, manufactured of window glass and bottles, founded American Flint Glassworks.

1789 Pierre Lyonet Dutch zoologist/cryptologist, dies at age 82.

1792 Jean-Louis Laruette composer, dies at age 60.

1797 Annnette von Droste-Hnlshoff is born in Hnlshoff, Germany; writer, poet.

1797 Birth of Annette von Droste-Hnlshoff, German writer (d. 1848)

1799 Friedrich von Schiller’s “Die Piccolomini” premieres in Weimar.

1800 Johan Wikmanson composer, dies at age 46.

1806 Dutch in Cape Town, South African surrender to the British.

1806 Dutch settlers in Cape Town surrender to the British.

1808 Herman Daendels succeeds A Wiese as Governor-General of Netherlands Indies.

1810 French church annuls marriage of Napoleon I and JosTphine.

1810 Marriage of Napoleon and Josephine is annulled.

1810 Sweden signs peace with France, regaining Pomerania, at a cost of breaking all trade with England except for salt imports.

1811 African-American slaves in Louisiana rebel in two parishes.

1811 Death of Marie-Joseph ChTnier, French poet (b. 1764)

1811 Louisiana slaves rebel in two parishes.

1811 Marie-Joseph de ChTnier French poet (Chant du DTpart), dies at age 46.

1814 Birth of Aubrey de Vere Irish writer (Victorian Observer).

1815 Birth of Alexander Brydie Dyer Brevet Major General (Union Army), died in 1874.

1824 Victor Emanuel I king of Sardinia (1802-21), dies at age 64.

1825 Birth of Alexander Travis Hawthorn Brigadier General (Confederate Army), died in 1899.

1828 Birth of Herman Koeckemann, German Catholic prelate (d. 1892)

1828 Death of Frantois de NeufchGteau, French statesman and intellectual figure (b. 1750)

1833 Adrien Marie Legendre dies.

1833 Antoinio da Silva Leite composer, dies at age 73.

1833 Death of Adrien-Marie Legendre, French mathematician (b. 1752)

1833 Felix Mendelssohn’s “Die erste Walpurgisnacht” premieres in Berlin.

1834 Birth of John Acton English historian/Member of Parliament.

1836 Birth of Charles Ingalls, father of Laura Ingalls Wilder (d. 1902)

1839 Tea from India first arrives in United Kingdom.

1840 Penny Post mail system started.

1843 Birth of Frank James, American outlaw (d. 1915)

1845 Poets Elizabeth Barrett and Robert Browning begin corresponding.

1846 Etienne P de Senancour French writer (De l’Amour), dies at age 75.

1847 Birth of Jacob Schiff in Frankfurt am Main, Germany; American railroad banker, philanthropist.

1849 Birth of Francisco Ferrer Guardia, Spanish free-thinker (d. 1909)

1851 Death of Karl Freiherr von Mnffling, Prussian field marshal (b. 1775)

1853 Charles Reade’s “Gold” premieres in London.

1854 Birth of Peter Gast composer.

1855 Birth of Peter J Blok Dutch historian (History of the Dutch People).

1855 Mary Russell Mitford English playwright/poet (Julian), dies at age 67.

1858 Birth of Heinrich Zille, German illustrator and photographer (d. 1929)

1861 American Civil War: Florida secedes from the United States.

1861 Florida becomes third state to secede from US.

1861 Fort Jackson and Fort Philip are taken over by Los Angeles state troops.

1861 US forts and property seized by Mississippi.

1862 Battle of Big Sandy River, Kentucky (Middle Creek).

1862 Battle of Romney, West Virginia.

1862 Death of Samuel Colt, American inventor (b. 1814)

1862 Samuel Colt inventor (6 shot revolver), dies at age 47.

1863 First underground railway opens in London.

1863 General McClernand’s Union troops surround Fort Hindman, Arkansas.

1863 January-uprising begins in Poland.

1863 The first section of the London Underground Railway opens, between Paddington and Farringdon Street.

1865 Birth of Mary Ingalls, elder sister of Laura Ingalls Wilder (d. 1928)

1866 Birth of Karl Aschoff in Berlin; pathologist, discovered phagocytes (cells which ingest foreign substances) and Aschoff’s bodies (nodules in the heart related to the rheumatic process).

1866 Death of Pyotr Pletnyov, Russian poet (b. 1792)

1867 Birth of Gerhard Anschntz German Member of Parliament.

1869 Birth of Grigori Rasputin, Russian monk (d. 1916)

1870 Georgia legislature reconvenes.

1870 John D Rockefeller incorporates Standard Oil.

1870 John D. Rockefeller incorporates Standard Oil.

1871 Birth of Enrica Freiin von Handel-Manzetti Austrian author (Jesse and Maria).

1871 Pierre A du Terrail French writer, dies at age 41.

1873 Birth of George Orton, Canadian athlete (d. 1958)

1876 Birth of Johannes W “Jan” Eisenloeffel Dutch goldsmith.

1876 Charles EH de Coussemaker Belgian musicologist/historian, dies at age 70.

1877 Birth of Frederick Gardner Cottrell inventor (electrostatic precipitator).

1878 US Senate proposes female suffrage.

1880 Birth of Eduard M Meijers Dutch lawyer (Short Cause).

1882 Birth of Charles Trowbridge Vera Cruz Mexico; actor (Fatal Hour).

1883 Birth of Francis X. Bushman, American actor (d. 1966)

1883 Fire at uninsured Newhall Hotel in Milwaukee WI kills 71; General Tom Thumb of P T Barnum fame, escapes unhurt.

1884 Birth of James Philip Dunn composer.

1886 Birth of Jose Antonio de Donostia composer.

1887 Birth of Robinson Jeffers, American poet (d. 1962)

1888 Birth of Emile van Bosch Dutch revue/operetta-artist (Fair Folks).

1889 Ivory Coast declared a protectorate of France.

1889 Martin Andreas Udbye composer, dies at age 68.

1890 Birth of Grigory Landsberg, Russian physicist (d. 1957)

1890 Death of Johann Joseph Ignaz von D�llinger in Munich, Germany; Roman Catholic priest, professor of canon law, church historian.

1890 Edward Macdowell’s “Lancelot and Elaine” premieres.

1890 Pope Leo XIII publishes encyclical Sapientiae Christianae.

1891 Birth of Jos Speybrouck Flemish painter.

1892 Birth of Dumas Malone Mississippi, historian (Jefferson and His Time).

1892 Heinrich Ludwig Egmont Dorn composer, dies at age 91.

1893 Richard Drigo’s ballet “The Magic Flute” premieres, Saint Petersburg.

1894 Birth of Reginald Denham London England, Broadway director (Obsession, The Bad Seed).

1895 Benjamin Louis Paul Godard composer, dies at age 45.

1895 Death of Benjamin Godard, French composer (b. 1849)

1897 Birth of Albert Moeschinger composer.

1897 Henrik Ibsen’s “John Gabriel Borkman” premieres in Helsingfors.

1897 Vincent d’Indy’s “Istar” premieres in Amsterdam and Brussels.

1898 Birth of Sergei M Eisenstein Russian director (Alexandr Nevski).

1899 Gerard Keller Dutch writer (Vlugmaren), dies at age 69.

1900 Lord Roberts and Lord Kitchener reach Capetown.

1901 A drilling derrick at Spindletop Hill near Beaumont, Texas, produces a gusher of crude oil from at a depth of over 1,000 feet.

1901 Birth of Pauline Starke Joplin Missouri, actress (Dante’s Inferno, Dance Magic).

1901 The first great Texas gusher, oil discovered at Spindletop in Beaumont, Texas.

1902 Alphons Diepenbrock’s “Te Deum” premieres (Amsterdam).

1903 Birth of Barbara Hepworth, British sculptor (d. 1975)

1904 Birth of Ray Bolger, American actor, singer, dancer (d. 1987)

1904 Death of Jean-LTon GTr(me, French painter and sculptor (b. 1824)

1908 Anna S Barbiers Dutch actress (Klaasje Zevenster), dies at age 65.

1908 Birth of Paul Henreid, Austrian actor (d. 1993)

1909 Birth of Grace Mitchell educator.

1910 Birth of Dorothy Stroud garden historian.

1910 First international air meet in US held, in Los Angeles.

1910 Lunt-Fontanne Theater (Globe) opens at 205 W 46th Steet New York City, New York.

1911 Birth of Jan Boon [Tjalie Robinson], Dutch East Indies publicist (Tong Tong).

1911 First photo in US taken from an airplane, San Diego.

1911 Honduras signs treaty turning over customs to US (not ratified).

1911 Trumper scored double cricket ton versus South Africa, goes on to get 214.

1912 Caillaux government in France resigns.

1912 World’s first flying boat’s maiden flight, (Glenn Curtiss in New York).

1913 Birth of Gust�v Hus�k, President of Czechoslovakia (d. 1991)

1914 Birth of Claude Gallimard France, publisher.

1914 First edition of Hague’s Post under San Francisco van Oss, published.

1914 Oscar Mathisen skates world record 500 minutes in 43.7 seconds in Oslo.

1915 Birth of Dean Dixon Zug Switzerland, conductor.

1916 Birth of Sune Bergstr�m, Swedish biochemist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 2004)

1916 Russian offensive in Kaukasus.

1917 Birth of Jerry Wexler, American record producer

1917 Buffalo Bill Cody army scout and Indian fighter, dies.

1917 Death of William F. Cody, American frontiersman (b. 1846)

1918 Birth of Arthur Chung, President of Guyana

1920 Birth of Max Patkin, American baseball player (d. 1999)

1920 League of Nations’ first meeting, Treaty of Versailles in effect.

1920 League of Nations holds its first meeting and ratifies the Treaty of Versailles ending World War I.

1920 Montreal Canadiens (14) and Toronto Saint Patricks (7) score NHL record 21 goals.

1920 Silver reaches record $1.37 an ounce.

1921 Birth of Rodger Ward, American race car driver (d. 2004)

1922 Arthur Griffith is elected President of the Irish Free State.

1923 Last US troops leave Rhineland (Germany).

1923 Lithuania seizes and annexes country of Memel.

1923 Lithuania seizes and annexes Memel.

1925 Birth of Max Roach, American drummer and composer

1925 France-Saarland forms.

1927 August(us) AllebT, Dutch painter/lithograph, dies at age 88.

1927 Birth of Gisele MacKenzie, Canadian singer (d. 2003)

1927 The film Metropolis by Fritz Lang premiers.

1928 Birth of Donald Brooks; fashion designer (Emmy 1983).

1928 Soviet Union orders exile of Leon Trotsky.

1929 Tintin, a comic book character created by HergT, makes his debut. He went on to be published in over 200 million comic books in 40 languages.

1930 Birth of Roy Edward Disney, American film executive

1930 Commencement of New Zealand’s first Test, versus England at Christchurch.

1930 Maurice Allom takes cricket Test hat-trick England versus New Zealand at Christchurch.

1930 Mordovian Autonomous Region in RSFSR constituted.

1931 Birth of Peter Barnes, English writer (d. 2004)

1931 Philadelphia Quakers defeat Montreal Canadiens, ends NHL-record 15-game losing streak.

1933 Birth of Leonard John Coldwell; cricket bowler (England medium-fast in 7 Tests 1962-64).

1934 Birth of Leonid Kravchuk, Ukrainian politician

1934 Death of Marinus van der Lubbe, Dutch communist accused of setting the Reichstag fire (b. 1909)

1934 Marinus van der Lubbe, Dutch communist, beheaded in Berlin, Germany at age 24.

1935 Actress Mary Pickford marries actor Douglas Fairbanks.

1935 Birth of Ronnie Hawkins, American musician

1935 Charlie McGahey, cricket player (MCC tour of Australia 1901-02 cured his tuberculosis), dies.

1935 Edwin H Flack, English 800m/1500m runner (Olympics-gold-1896), dies at age 60.

1936 Birth of Stephen Ambrose, American historian (d. 2002)

1936 Charles Wright, cricket player (3 Tests England versus South Africa 1895-96), dies.

1937 Birth of Thomas Penfield Jackson, American judge

1938 Birth of Donald Knuth, American mathematician and computer scientist

1939 Birth of William Levy, Dutch writer

1939 Donald Bradman hits 186 South Africa versus Queensland before Christ catches him at short-leg.

1941 Death of Frank Bridge, English composer (b. 1879)

1941 Graf von Schulenburg of the German Government and V. Molotov of the USSR sign a secret protocol transferring a small piece of Lithuanian territory to the USSR for 31.5 million reichmarks (US$7.5 million).

1941 Joseph Schmidlin, German church historian, murdered at age 67.

1941 Lend-Lease is introduced into the U.S. Congress.

1941 Seyss-Inquart begins registration of Jews.

1942 Japan invades North-Celebes, Dutch East Indies.

1943 Agustin P Justo y Rolon, President of Argentina (1931-38), dies at age 66.

1943 Birth of Jim Croce, American singer (d. 1973)

1943 First US President to visit a foreign country in wartime-Franklin Roosevelt leaves for Casablanca, Morocco.

1943 J Arthur S Berson, Austrian meteorologist, dies at age 83.

1943 The Soviet Red Army breaks into Stalingrad.

1944 Birth of Frank Sinatra, Jr., American singer

1944 British troops conquer Maungdaw, Burma.

1944 First mobile electric power plant delivered, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

1945 Baseball writers again fail to elect a new Hall of Famer.

1945 Birth of Rod Stewart, English singer

1945 Los Angeles Railway (with five streetcar lines) forced to close.

1946 Birth of Aynsley Dunbar, British drummer

1946 First General Assembly of the United Nations opens in London. Fifty-one nations are represented.

1946 United Nations General Assembly convenes for first time (London, England).

1946 US Army establishes first radar contact with Moon, from Belmar, New Jersey.

1948 Birth of Donald Fagen, American keyboardist

1949 Birth of George Foreman, American boxer

1949 Death of Erich Dagobert von Drygalski in K�nigsberg, Germany; geographer, glaciologist, professor.

1951 Death of Sinclair Lewis, American writer, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1885)

1951 First jet passenger trip made.

1951 Harry Sinclair Lewis, US writer (Nobel Prize 1930), dies at age 65.

1951 United Nations headquarters opens in Manhattan, New York, USA.

1952 Birth of Scott Thurston, American musician, songwriter

1953 Birth of Pat Benatar, American singer

1953 Bollingen Prize for poetry awarded to Archibald MacLeish.

1953 NFL Pro Bowl: National Conference beats American Conference 27-7.

1954 Bollingen Prize for poetry awarded to W H Auden.

1955 Birth of Michael Schenker, German guitarist (UFO)

1956 Birth of Shawn Colvin, American singer

1957 Anthony Eden resigns and Harold Macmillan becomes Prime Minister of Great Britain.

1957 Baseball Commissioner Ford Frick rules Bing Crosby can keep token stock in the Detroit Tigers, even though he owns part of Pittsburgh Pirates.

1957 Birth of Robert Thompson in Houston, Texas, USA; Nike golfer (1990 Boise Open-second).

1957 Death of Gabriela Mistral, Chilean writer, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1889)

1957 Gabriela Mistral, Chilean poet (Nobel Prize 1945), dies at age 67.

1957 Harold Macmillan becomes the prime minister of the United Kingdom.

1958 Jerry Lee Lewis’ “Great Balls of Fire” reaches #1 on the country and R&B charts, #2 on the pop chart.

1959 Birth of Simon Sunatori, Canadian inventor

1960 Bollingen Prize for poetry awarded to Delmore Schwartz.

1961 Birth of Evan Handler, American actor

1961 Death of Dashiell Hammett, American writer (b. 1894)

1962 Birth of Jim Lindeman; US baseball outfielder (New York Mets).

1962 Eruptions on Mount Huascaran in Peru destroy seven villages and kill 3,500.

1963 Birth of Frank Wijnhoven; Dutch soccer player (NEC, Treffers).

1964 Battles between Muslims and hindus in Calcutta, India.

1964 Birth of Brad Roberts, Canadian singer (Crash Test Dummies)

1965 Birth of James Washington; NFL safety (Dallas Cowboys, Washington Redskins).

1965 Bollingen prize for poetry awarded to Horace Gregory.

1965 NFL Pro Bowl: West beats East 34-14.

1966 George Cresswell, cricket player (took 13 wickets in 3 Tests for New Zealand), suicide.

1966 India and Pakistan sign peace accord.

1966 Julian Bond denied seat in Georgia legislature for opposing Vietnam War.

1967 Birth of Mick Hankers; Dutch dancer (Josephine, Sound of Motown).

1967 Dutch Princess Margret marries Pieter van Vollenhoven.

1967 Lester Maddox inaugurated as Governor of Georgia, USA.

1967 PBS (the National Educational TV) begins as a 70-station network.

1968 Birth of Lyle Menendez in New York; accused of killing his parents (Menendez Brothers).

1968 Louis-Fran?ois-Marie Aubert, French composer (La Momie), dies at age 90.

1968 Theophilus E D�nges, South African Internal minister, dies at age 69.

1969 After 147 years, the last issue of The Saturday Evening Post is published.

1969 Birth of Juanita Clayton in Manitou, Manitoba, Canada; softball catcher (Olympics-1996).

1969 Sweden (first Western country) recognizes North Vietnam.

1970 Birth of Cameron MacKenzie; Australian 100m/200m/400m (Olympics-1996).

1970 Death of Pavel Belyayev, cosmonaut (b. 1925)

1970 Pavel Ivanovich Belyayev, USSR cosmonaut (Voskhod II), dies at age 44.

1971 Birth of Guylaine Cloutier in Levis, QuTbec, Canada; 100m breast stroke swimmer (Olympics-4-1992, 1996).

1971 Bollingen Prize for poetry awarded to Richard Wilbur.

1971 Death of Gabrielle “Coco” Chanel, French fashion designer (b. 1883)

1971 Gabrielle “Coco”, Chanel French fashion designer, dies at age 87.

1972 Birth of Thomas Alsgaard, Norwegian cross-country skier

1972 Death of Aksel Larsen, Danish politician (b. 1897)

1972 Georg Rendl, Austrian miner/bee-keeper (Satan on Earth), dies at age 68.

1972 Los Angeles Lakers’ 33 straight win streak snapped, losing to Milwaukee Bucks 120-104.

1972 Sheik Mujib ur-Rahman arrives in Dacca, East-Pakistan.

1973 Birth of Ryan Drummond, American voice actor

1974 Birth of Steve Marlet, French footballer

1975 Birth of Jake Delhomme, American football player

1976 Chester Arthur Burnett, American blues pianist/harmonica player, dies at age 65.

1976 Death of Howlin’ Wolf, American musician (b. 1910)

1976 Howlin’ Wolf, singer/guitarist, dies following brain surgery at age 65.

1977 20th hat trick in New York Islanders’ history – Bobby Nystrom.

1978 Birth of Gavin McCann, English footballer

1978 Death of Pedro Chamorro, Nicaraguan journalist (b. 1924)

1978 Don Gillis, US composer (Symphony #5 1/2), dies at age 65.

1978 John D Rockefeller III, US billionaire/philanthropist, dies at age 71.

1978 Pedro Joaqu?n Chamorro of La Prensa, assassinated in Managua.

1978 Soyuz 27 carries two cosmonauts to Salyut 6 space station.

1978 Zeb Turner, country-rock performer (Chew Tobacco Rag), dies at age 62.

1979 Birth of Chris H E Smith [Daddy Mack] in Atlanta; rapper (Kris Kross – “Warm it Up”).

1980 Birth of Janelle Pierzina, American television personality

1980 Death of George Meany, American labor leader (b. 1894)

1980 George Meany, American labor leader, dies at age 85 (born 1894).

1980 Jim Stewart, Boston Bruins’ rookie goalie allows three goals in his first four minutes and a total of five in first period; he never again plays in the NHL.

1981 Death of Katherine Alexander, American actress (born 1898).

1981 El Salvador guerrilla group FMLN opens “general offensive”.

1981 John Severin sets 100-mile unicycle speed record, 9 hours 21 minutes.

1982 Birth of Max Starks, American football player

1982 Cincinnati Bengals beat San Diego Chargers in -59 degrees F (-51 degrees C) to win AFC championship.

1982 Death of Paul Lynde, American comedian (b. 1926)

1982 Petra Schneider swims world record 1500 metre freestyle (15:43.31).

1982 The lowest ever UK temperature of -27.2�C was recorded at Braemar in Aberdeenshire. This equaled the record set in the same place on February 11, 1895. The record would be equalled again at Altnaharra on December 30, 1995

1982 The lowest ever United Kingdom temperature of -27.2 degrees C (-17 F) is recorded at Braemar, in Aberdeenshire, equaling the record set in the same place in 1895.

1983 Birth of Li Nina; Chinese aerial free-style skier.

1983 Death of Roy DeMeo, Mafia hitman (born 1942).

1983 New York Supreme Court issues a preliminary injunction barring New York Yankees from playing season-opening series against Detroit Tigers in Denver, Colorado.

1984 Argentine ex-president General Bignone arrested.

1984 Birth of Marouane Chamakh, Moroccan football player.

1984 Bulgarian Tupolev 134 plane crashes at Sofia airport in Bulgaria, 50 die.

1984 Luis Aparicio, Harmon Killebrew, and D Drysdale elected to Baseball Hall of Fame.

1984 Suvanna Phuma, premier of Laos, dies at age 82.

1984 The United States and the Vatican establish full diplomatic relations.

1984 US establishes full diplomatic relations with Vatican after 117 years.

1985 Daniel Ortega Saavedra inaugurated as President of Nicaragua.

1986 Death of Jaroslav Seifert, Czech writer, Nobel Prize laureate (born 1901).

1986 Joseph Kraft, US columnist, dies at age 61.

1986 Palau signs Compact of Free Association with US.

1987 Birth of CTsar Cielo; Brazilian swimmer.

1987 Death of Sir David Robinson, British philanthropist and entrepreneur (b. 1904)

1988 Birth of Michael Mcilorum, English rugby union player.

1989 Cuban troops begin withdrawing from Angola.

1989 Cuban troops begin withdrawing from Angola.

1989 Death of Hai Teng, abbott of Shaolin Temple (born 1902?).

1989 In Australia, Assistant AFP Police Commissioner Colin Winchester gunned down in driveway of Canberra home.

1990 China lifts martial law (imposed after Tiananmen Square massacre).

1990 NCAA approves random drug testing for college football players.

1990 Time Warner is formed from the merger of Time Inc. and Warner Communications Inc.

1990 Time Warner is formed from the merger of Time Inc. and Warner Communications Inc.

1991 Japan ends routine fingerprinting of all adult ethnic Koreans.

1991 US Congress begins debate on Persian Gulf crisis.

1992 Birth of Eric and Brandon Billings, twin American actors.

1993 Diana Adams, ballerina, dies.

1993 Maiden flight of Ultrair (Houston to Los Angeles).

1993 Noorjahan Begum, “adulterous” wife in Bangladesh, stoned to death.

1994 Catharina I “Ien” Dales, minister of Internal affairs (1989-94), dies at age 62.

1994 Charles “Chub” Feeney, baseball president (National League), dies at age 72.

1994 Ukraine says it will give up world’s third largest nuclear arsenal.

1994 Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan agree to abolish trade tariffs.

1995 Elaine Greene, literary agent, dies at age 74.

1996 Alexander Robertus, organic chemist, dies at age 88.

1996 Arthur Sydney Martin, spycatcher, dies at age 81.

1996 Israel frees hundreds of Palestinian prisoners.

1996 Jimmy Johnson announced as new coach of Miami Dolphins.

1997 Alvinio Misciano, Italian tenor, killed in a fall from a window.

1997 Bulgarian Student strike versus government of Jan Videnov.

1997 Death of Alexander R. Todd, Baron Todd, Scottish chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (born 1907).

1997 Dow Corning provides US$2.95 billion to settle breast implant suits.

1997 Elspeth Josceline Huxley writer, dies at age 96.

1997 First comet of 1997 discovered: Comet 1997 A1.

1997 George Young, football player, dies at age 74.

1997 Hilary Grover Barratt Brown, conservationist, dies at age 71.

1997 Italy’s new 1,000 lire coin shows divided Germany on map.

1997 Right-winger Arnoldo Aleman sworn in as President of Nicaragua.

1998 In Guatemala, a magnitude 6.6 earthquake occurs. At least 27 people injured. Felt throughout southern and western Guatemala, in El Salvador and parts of southern Mexico.

1998 In Northeastern China, a magnitude 5.7 earthquake occurs. Seventy people killed, about 11,500 injured, 44,000 families left homeless. Over 70,000 houses were damaged or destroyed. Damage to portions of the Great Wall of China in northwestern Hebei Province.

2000 America Online announces an agreement to buy Time Warner for $162 billion, the largest corporate merger in history.

2000 America Online announces it is buying Time Warner, in a stock-trade deal valued at $160 billion, the largest in corporate history. The new firm, AOL Time Warner, will have a combined value of $350 billion.

2000 Death of Sam Jaffe, American producer (b. 1901)

2001 Wikipedia starts as part of Nupedia. It becomes a separate site five days later.

2002 Enrique Bola�os begins his five-year term as President of the Republic of Nicaragua.

2004 At the Detroit Opera House in Michigan, General Motors unveils the next-generation “C6” 2005 Corvette. It features 400-hp engine, fixed headlights, and targa top.

2004 Death of Spalding Gray, American actor and screenwriter (b. 1941)

2005 Death of JosTphine-Charlotte, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg (born 1927).

2006 Apple Computer releases its first Macintosh (iMac) computer with an Intel processor.

2006 Bruce Sutter becomes just the fourth relief pitcher to get into the Baseball Hall of Fame.

2007 A meteorite falls in the Altai Territory in southern Siberia, Russia.

2007 Death of Carlo Ponti, Italian film producer (born 1912).

2007 U.S. President George W. Bush announces a plan to station 21,500 additional troops in Iraq.

2008 Death of Maila Nurmi, Finnish-American actress and television personality (born 1921).

2008 In Colombia, FARC releases two former Colombian politician women hostages held captive in the country for six years: Clara Rojas and Consuela Gonz�lez de Perdomo.