This Day in History June 28

1098 Fighters of the First Crusade defeat Kerbogha of Mosul.

1175 Death of Andrei Bogolyubsky, Russian prince

1194 Death of Emperor Xiaozong of Song China (b. 1127)

1243 Birth of Emperor Go-Fukakusa of Japan (d. 1304)

1243 Innocent IV becomes pope.

1245 First Council of Lyons (13th ecumenical council) opens.

1385 Death of Andronicus IV Palaeologus, Eastern Roman Emperor (b. 1348)

1389 Death of Prince Lazar Hrebeljanovi? of Serbia (b. 1329)

1389 Ottoman forces crush the Serbian armies in Kosovo, opening the way for the Ottoman conquest of Southeastern Europe (see Vidovdan).

1476 Birth of Pope Paul IV (d. 1559)

1490 Birth of Albrecht Margrave von Brandenburg; Cardinal, Elector of the Holy Roman Empire and Archbishop of Mainz.

1491 Birth of Henry VIII; King of England (1509-47).

1503 Birth of Giovanni della Casa, Italian poet (d. 1556)

1519 Charles V elected emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.

1577 Birth of Peter Paul Rubens Siegen, Flemish Baroque painter (Circumcision).

1586 Death of Primo? Trubar, Slovenian protestant reformer (b. 1508)

1598 Death of Abraham Ortelius, Flemish-born cartographer (b. 1527)

1635 French colony of Guadeloupe established in the Caribbean.

1635 Guadeloupe becomes a French colony.

1651 Battle of Beresteczko between Poles and Ukrainians, the biggest battle in the 17th century, starts.

1709 In the early morning, about 22,000 Swedes attack the Poltava defenders of about 45,000 Russians. By mid-day, the fighting ends. The Swedes are defeated, with some 7,000 killed and 2,500 captured. The King and the remaining army of about 15,000 retreat south-west to Perevolotjna.

1712 Birth of Jean Jacques Rousseau France, social contractor (Confessions).

1716 Death of George FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Northumberland, English general (b. 1665)

1719 Birth of �tienne Frantois, duc de Choiseul, French statesman (d. 1785)

1762 Accession to the throne of Catherine the Great in Russia.

1763 Earthquake in Komarom, Hungary

1770 Quakers open a school for blacks in Philadelphia.

1776 Charleston, South Carolina repulses British sea attack.

1776 Thomas Hickey American sergeant convicted of treason, hanged.

1776 Thomas Hinkey was hanged for mutiny, sedition, and treachery for plotting to kidnap George Washington. Hinkey was one of his bodyguards.

1778 American Revolutionary War: Battle of Monmouth fought between the American Continental Army under George Washington and the British Army led by Sir Henry Clinton.

1778 Battle of Monmouth, New Jersey.

1778 Mary Ludwig Hayes “Molly Pitcher” aids American patriots.

1787 Birth of Sir Henry G W Smith leader of British-Indian forces.

1806 Birth of Napoleon Coste, French guitarist and composer (d. 1883)

1813 Death of Gerhard von Scharnhorst, Prussian general (b. 1755)

1820 Tomato is proven nonpoisonous.

1824 Birth of Paul Broca France, brain surgeon/anthro (located speech center).

1831 Birth of Joseph Joachim Kittsee Germany, violinist (Hungarian Concerto).

1834 Death of Joseph BovT, Russian architect (b. 1784)

1836 Death of James Madison, President of the United States (b. 1751)

1836 James Madison fourth US pres, dies in Montpelier, Virginia.

1838 Britain’s Queen Victoria crowned in Westminster Abbey.

1838 The coronation of Victoria of the United Kingdom.

1855 The Sigma Chi Fraternity was founded at Miami University

1859 First conformation dog show is held in Newcastle-on-Tyne, England.

1859 (to June 29) First dog show is held, in Newcastle-on-Tyne, England. Two classes of dogs are judged: pointers and setters.

1861 Leipzig Observatory discovers short-period (6.2 years) Comet d’Arrest.

1862 Day four of the 7 Days – Battle of Savage’s Station.

1863 US President Abraham Lincoln replaces General Joseph Hooker as commander of the Army of the Potomac with General George Meade.

1867 Birth of Luigi Pirandello Italy, writer (6 Characters-Nobel Prize 1934).

1873 Birth of Alexis Carrel France, surgeon/sociologist/biologist (Nobel Prize 1912).

1874 Freedmen’s Bank closes.

1875 Birth of Karl Goetz; German medalist.

1880 Ned Kelly the Australian bushranger captured at Glenrowan.

1881 Death of Jules Armand Dufaure, French statesman (b. 1798)

1881 Secret treaty between Austria and Serbia.

1883 Birth of Pierre Laval, Prime Minister of France (d. 1945)

1886 C H F Peters discovers asteroid #259 Aletheia.

1886 First scheduled Canadian transcontinental passenger train departs from Montreal, Quebec for Port Moody, British Columbia.

1887 Minot, North Dakota incorporated as a city.

1887 Philadelphia Phillies most lopsided shut-out beating Indianapolis 24-0.

1889 Death of Maria Mitchell, American astronomer (b. 1818)

1889 Maria Mitchell first US woman astronomer, dies at age 71.

1891 Birth of Carl Panzram, American serial killer (d. 1930)

1892 Philadelphia Phillies tie club record of 16 straight victories.

1894 Birth of Lois Wilson Pittsburgh Pennsylvania, actress (Alice-Aldrich Family).

1894 Labor Day becomes an official US holiday.

1894 Labor Day established as a federal employees holiday.

1895 El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua form the Central American Union.

1902 Birth of Pierre Brunet France, figure skater pair (Olympic-gold-1928, 1932).

1902 US Congress authorizes Louisiana Purchase Expo $1 gold coin.

1903 Birth of Alan Bunce Westfield New Jersey; actor (Albert-Ethel and Albert).

1905 Russian sailors mutiny aboard the battleship “Potemkin”.

1906 Birth of Maria Goeppert Mayer US atomic physicist (Nobel Prize 1963).

1909 Birth of Eric Ambler suspense author (Epitaph for a Spy).

1909 First French air show, Concours d’Avation opens.

1909 Israel Durham, Philadelphia Phillies’ president dies.

1911 A series of loud bangs are heard over Alexandria, Egypt, as about 40 pieces of a meteorite fall totalling 40kg, one kills a dog. The meteorite is named Nakhla for the village of El Nakhla El Baharia.

1912 Birth of Sergiu Celibidache, Romanian conductor (d. 1996)

1913 Birth of Franz Antel, Austrian filmmaker

1913 Death of Manoel Ferraz de Campos Salles, President of Brazil (b. 1841)

1914 Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife Sophie are shot to death by Bosnian Serb nationalist Gavrilo Princip during an official visit to the Bosnian capital of Sarajevo.

1914 Birth of Aribert Heim, Austrian physician

1914 Death of Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria (assassinated) (b. 1863)

1914 Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria and his wife Sophia are assassinated in Sarajevo by young Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip , the casus belli of World War I.

1915 Death of Victor Trumper, Australian cricketer (b. 1877)

1916 Death of ?tefan Luchian, Romanian painter (b. 1868)

1918 First flight between Hawaiian Islands.

1919 Carl Mazes pitches a complete double-header against New York Yankees.

1919 Harry S Truman married Elizabeth Virginia Wallace in Independence.

1919 In Versailles, France, British Prime Minister David Lloyd George and French Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau sign the Treaty of Guarantee. The treaty calls for Great Britain and the USA to come to France’s immediate aid if Germany makes an unprovoked assault on the country.

1919 In Versailles, France, the peace Treaty of Versailles is signed, formally ending the Great War (World War I), five years to the day after the assassination of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand.

1919 The Treaty of Versailles is signed in Paris, formally ending World War I between Britain, France, Italy, the United States and allies on the one side and Germany and Austria Hungary on the other side.

1921 Birth of P. V. Narasimha Rao, Prime Minister of India (d. 2004)

1922 Death of Velimir Khlebnikov, Russian poet (b. 1885)

1922 The Irish Civil War begins with the shelling of the Four Courts in Dublin by Free State forces.

1923 Brooklyn Dodgers lose 7-0 lead, as Philadelphia Phillies score 8 in bottom of 9th.

1924 Tornado strikes Sandusky and Lorain in Ohio, USA, killing 93.

1926 Birth of Mel Brooks, American filmmaker

1927 Birth of Frank Sherwood Rowland, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate

1928 Alfred E Smith (Governor of New York) is nominated for President of the USA at Democratic Convention.

1928 Friedrich Schmiedl attempts rocket mail in Austria (unsucessful).

1929 Death of Edward Carpenter, English poet (b. 1844)

1930 Birth of Itamar Franco, President of Brazil

1932 Birth of Pat Morita, American actor (d. 2005)

1934 Birth of Carl Levin, United States Senator

1935 Birth of John Inman, British actor

1935 US President Franklin Roosevelt orders the construction of a gold vault at Fort Knox, Kentucky.

1936 Birth of Chuck Howley, American football player

1936 The Japanese puppet state of Mengjiang is formed in northern China.

1937 Birth of George Knudson, Canadian professional golfer (d. 1989)

1938 A 450 metric ton meteorite struck the earth in an empty field near Chicora, Pennsylvania

1938 Birth of Moy Yat, Chinese martial artist (d. 2001)

1939 New York Yankees hit 13 home runs, sweep Philadelphia Athletics 23-2 and 10-0.

1940 Romania cedes Bessarabia (current-day Moldova) to the Soviet Union.

1940 Soviet troops occupy Bessarabia and north-east Bukovina.

1941 Birth of Al Downing, Major League baseball player

1942 Birth of Sjoukje Dijkstra in Holland; figure skater (Olympic-gold-1964).

1942 Dumont TV network begins (WABD New York).

1943 Birth of Klaus von Klitzing, German physicist, Nobel Prize laureate

1945 Birth of David Knights; bassist (Pocol Harum).

1945 Polish Provisional Government of National Unity set up by Soviets.

1946 Birth of John “Mike” Lounge in Denver, Colorado, USA; astronaut (STS 51-I, STS 26, STS 35).

1946 Enrico de Nicola becomes first president of Italy.

1947 Birth of Mark Helprin, American writer

1948 Birth of Kathy Bates, American actress

1948 Cominform circulates the “Resolution on the situation in the Communist Party of Yugoslavia”

1949 Birth of Don Baylor in Texas, USA; baseball player (1979 American League RBI leader).

1950 Seoul is captured by troops from North Korea.

1952 Birth of Pietro Mennea, Italian athlete

1954 Birth of Alice Krige, South African actress

1954 Red deer dies in Milwaukee Zoo at age 26; oldest known deer.

1955 Birth of Nikolai Simyatov in the USSR; nordic skier (Olympic-3 golds-1976).

1956 Anti-communist demonstrations in Pozna?. Also called Pozna?ski czerwiec (June of Pozna?).

1956 First atomic reactor built for private research operates in Chicago, Illinois, USA.

1956 Riots break out in Poznan, Poland; 38 die.

1958 Birth of Sergei Shakrai in USSR; champion figure skater.

1960 26.42 cm (10.40 inches) of rainfall in Dunmor, Kentucky, USA (state 24-hour record).

1960 Birth of John Elway; NFL quarterback (Denver Broncos).

1960 Death of Jake Swirbul, American aircraft manufacturer (b. 1898)

1960 US-owned oil refineries in Cuba confiscated and nationalised.

1961 Birth of Jay Schroeder; NFL quarterback (Washington Redskins, Los Angeles Raiders).

1961 Philadelphia Phillies and San Francisco Giants set then record longest night game (5:11) 7-7 15-inning tie.

1962 Death of Mickey Cochrane, baseball player (b. 1903)

1962 Mickey Cochrane, baseball hall of fame catcher, dies at age 59.

1963 Birth of Andy Cousin; rocker (All About Eve – “All About Scarlet and Other Stories”).

1963 Frank “Home Run” Baker (hit two home runs in 1911 world series) dies at age 77.

1964 Birth of Mark Grace, baseball player

1964 Malcom X forms the Organization of Afro-American Unity.

1964 Organization for Afro-American Unity forms in New York by Malcolm X.

1965 A R Klemola discovers asteroid #2179 Platzeck.

1965 Death of Red Nichols, American musician (b. 1905)

1965 First US ground combat forces in Vietnam authorized by President Lyndon Johnson.

1966 Birth of John Cusack, American actor

1967 Israel annexes East Jerusalem.

1968 Birth of Adam Woodyatt, British actor

1968 Daniel Ellsberg indicted for leaking Pentagon Papers.

1968 Last day of redeeming US silver certificates for silver, in any form.

1969 Birth of Danielle Brisebois, American actress

1969 Stonewall riots in New York city mark the beginning of the modern gay rights era.

1970 Birth of Mushtaq Ahmed, Pakistani cricketer

1971 Birth of Fabien Barthez, French footballer

1971 Joseph Colombo, mobster, is shot dead at age 48.

1971 Philadelphia Phillies’ Rick Wise hits two home runs and no-hits Cincinnati Reds.

1971 T Smirnova discovers asteroid #3093.

1971 US Supreme Court overturns draft evasion conviction of Muhammad Ali.

1972 Birth of Jon Heidenreich, American professional wrestler

1973 Birth of Adrian Annus, Hungarian athlete

1973 Lawsuit in Detroit, Michigan, challenges Little League’s “no girls” rule.

1974 Death of Frank Sutton, American actor (b. 1923)

1975 Death of Rod Serling, American television scriptwriter (b. 1924)

1975 Golfer Lee Trevino is struck by lightning at Western Open (Illinois).

1976 Birth of Shinobu Asagoe, Japanese tennis player

1976 Death of Stanley Baker, British actor and producer (b. 1927)

1977 US Supreme Court allows Federal control of Nixon tapes papers.

1978 Death of Clifford Dupont, First President of Rhodesia (b. 1905)

1978 The United States Supreme Court, in Regents of the University of California v. Bakke bars quota systems in college admissions.

1978 UNICEF chooses rock group Kansas as ambassadors of goodwill.

1979 Birth of Randy McMichael, American football player

1979 Death of Paul Dessau in East Berlin, Germany; composer and conductor.

1980 Death of JosT Iturbi, Spanish pianist and conductor (b. 1895)

1981 Birth of Mara Santangelo; Italian tennis player.

1981 Death of Terry Fox, Canadian athlete and cancer activist (born 1958).

1982 Prince Charles and Lady Diana name their baby “William”.

1983 Bridge section along I-95 in Greenwich, Connecticut collapses killing three.

1983 NASA launches Galaxy-A.

1983 The Mianus River Bridge collapses over the Mianus River in Connecticut, killing 3 drivers in their vehicles.

1984 Motorola introduces the 16-MHz 68020 processor, a 32-bit version of the 68000, in CMOS, with on-board cache. Estimated performance is 2-3 MIPS. Price is US$487 each.

1984 Richard Ram?rez, aka the “Night Stalker,” performs his first recorded murder.

1985 Birth of Phil Bardsley; English football player.

1986 Birth of Shadia Simmons, Canadian actress.

1987 An accidental explosion at Hohenfels Training Area in West Germany kills three U.S. troopers.

1987 Don Baylor sets career hit-by-pitch mark at 244 (Pitcher Rick Rhoden).

1987 E F Helin discovers asteroid #3680 Sasha.

1988 Four workers are asphyxiated at a metal-plating plant in Auburn, Indiana (a fifth victim dies two days later).

1988 The worst confined-space industrial accident in U.S. history occurs at a metal-plating plant in Auburn, Indiana, killing five.

1989 Death of Joris Ivens, Dutch filmmaker (born 1898).

1989 Slobodan Milo?evi?’s Kosovo Polje Speech

1990 Paperback Software found guilty by a U.S. court of copyright violation for copying the appearance and menu system of Lotus 1-2-3 in its competing spreadsheet program.

1991 In Sierra Madre, California, a magnitude 5.6 earthquake occurs.

1992 Death of Mikhail Tal, Latvian chess player (b. 1936)

1992 Estonia holds a referendum on its constitution.

1992 In Landers, California, a magnitude 7.3 earthquake occurs, followed in three hours by a 6.5 earthquake in Big Bear.

1993 Death of G.G. Allin, American singer and bandleader (born 1956).

1994 Birth of Sophia Lorentzen, British heiress.

1994 Members of the Aum Shinrikyo cult release a sarin gas attack at Matsumoto, Japan. Seven persons killed, 660 injured.

1997 Boxer Mike Tyson is disqualified from WBA title re-match, for biting off part of the ear of his opponent Evander Holyfield.

1997 Death of Mrs. Miller, American singer (born 1907).

2001 Death of Mortimer Adler, American philosopher (born 1902).

2001 U.S. Appeals Court overturns a lower court’s order to breakup Microsoft in an antitrust case.

2003 Death of Wim Slijkhuis, Dutch athlete (b. 1923)

2003 In St. Charles, Illinois, the Bloomington Gold Corvettes USA show is held, over four days. Mecum Collector Car Auctioneers conducts the auction of over 300 Corvettes. Roger Judski pays US$640,000 for a 1967 L88 red coupe with only 12 miles on it. This is a world record for any production Corvette.

2004 38th Canadian federal election

2004 Canadian election: The Liberal Party, led by Paul Martin, is reduced to a minority government, after holding a majority since November 1993.

2004 Death of Anthony Buckeridge, English author (b. 1912)

2004 Estonia, Lithuania and Slovenia join the European Exchange Rate Mechanism

2004 Sovereign power is handed to the interim government of Iraq by the Coalition Provisional Authority, ending the U.S.-led rule of that nation.

2004 The U.S.-led coalition occupying Iraq transfers sovereignty to an Iraqi Interim Government.

2004 Union Pacific and Burlington Northern Santa Fe trains collide in a rural area outside of San Antonio, Texas. Forty cars are derailed, including one chlorine car. Three people die, another 50 people are hospitalized because of exposure to the gas.

2005 A final design for Manhattan’s Freedom Tower is formally unveiled.

2005 Canada becomes the third country in the world to legalize same-sex marriage.

2005 Death of Brenda Howard, American activist (born 1946).

2006 Death of George Unwin, British fighter ace WWII (b.1913)

2006 Israel launches Operation Summer Rains, an offensive against militants in Gaza.

2006 The Republic of Montenegro was admitted as the 192nd Member of the United Nations by General Assembly resolution 60/264.

2007 Death of Kiichi Miyazawa, 78th Prime Minister of Japan (born 1919).

2007 In the aftermath of Greece’s worst heatwave in a century, at least eleven people are reported dead from heatstroke, approximately 200 wildfires break out nationwide, and the country’s electricity grid nearly collapses due to record breaking demand.

2007 The US Fish and Wildlife Service announces it would remove the bald eagle fom the endangered species list.

2008 Death of Ruslana Korshunova, Kazakhstani model (born 1987).

2009 Brazil wins the FIFA Confederations Cup final, defeating the USA 3-2 in South Africa.

2009 Honduran President Manuel Zelaya is taken from his home by force by soldiers, and expelled from the country.

2010 Gold hits a new high of US$1262 per ounce.

2010 India and Canada sign a nuclear agreement to promote and develop co-operation in civilian nuclear energy, opening up the Indian market to Canadian nuclear exports.

2010 The US Supreme Court rules 5-4 that a ban on handgun ownership in the city of Chicago was unconstitutional, ruling that the US Constitution protects the right to keep and bear arms for the purpose of self-defence.

2010 U.S. Senator Robert Byrd, longest serving member ever of the Congress (Democrat, Representative for West Virginia 1952-58, Senator for West Virginia 1958-2010), dies at age 92 in Washington, D.C.