This Day in History June 20

451 Death of Theodorid, King of the Visigoths

840 Death of Louis the Pious, King of the Franks, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire (b. 778)

1005 Birth of Ali az-Zahir, caliph (d. 1036)

1214 University of Oxford in England receives its charter.

1214 University of Oxford receives its charter.

1389 Birth of John, Duke of Bedford, regent of England (d. 1435)

1402 Battle of Angora (Ankara)-Tatars defeat Turkish Army.

1567 Jews are expelled from Brazil by order of regent Don Henrique.

1583 Birth of Jacob De la Gardie, Swedish soldier and statesman (d. 1652)

1597 Death of Willem Barentsz, Dutch navigator

1631 The sack of Baltimore: the Irish village of Baltimore is attacked by Algerian pirates.

1632 Britain grants second Lord Baltimore rights to Chesapeake Bay area.

1634 Birth of Charles Emmanuel II of Savoy (d. 1675)

1641 France and Sweden sign the Treaty of Hamburg. Sweden receives increased monetary subsidies from France, and agrees to continue fighting for the duration of the war.

1646 In England, Oxford city surrenders to Fairfax.

1646 In England, Parliament signs a peace treaty with Royalists.

1647 Birth of John George III, Elector of Saxony (d. 1691)

1668 Death of Heinrich Roth, German Sanskrit scholar (b. 1620)

1674 Birth of Nicholas Rowe England, poet laureate (Jane Shore, Tamerlane).

1685 Monmouth Rebellion: The Duke of Monmouth declares himself King of England at Bridgwater.

1717 Birth of Jacques Saly, French sculptor (d. 1776)

1756 Between 64 and 146 British soldiers are confined in Calcutta, India in a prison known as the Black Hole. Only 23 survive the night.

1756 Birth of Joseph Martin Kraus, Swedish composer (d. 1792)

1756 British garrison imprisoned in the Black Hole of Calcutta.

1763 Birth of Wolfe Tone, Irish patriot (d. 1798)

1771 Birth of Thomas Douglas, 5th Earl of Selkirk, Scottish philanthropist and entrepreneur (d. 1820)

1776 Death of Benjamin Huntsman, English inventor and manufacturer (b. 1704)

1779 Battle of Stone Ferry.

1782 The U.S. Congress adopts the Great Seal of the United States.

1782 US Congress approves a written description of the Great Seal of the USA and the eagle as its symbol.

1786 Birth of Marceline Desbordes-Valmore, French poet (d. 1859)

1787 Death of Karl Friedrich Abel, German composer (b. 1723)

1789 Deputies of the French Third Estate took the Tennis Court Oath.

1789 Oath of the Tennis Court (for a new constitution) in France taken.

1791 King Louis XVI caught trying to escape French Revolution.

1791 The Flight to Varennes began.

1793 Eli Whitney applies for a cotton gin patent.

1800 Death of Abraham Gotthelf KSstner, German mathematician (b. 1719)

1808 Birth of Samson Raphael Hirsch, German rabbi (d. 1888)

1819 Birth of Jacques Offenbach Cologne, French composer (Tales of Hoffmann).

1819 The US vessel Savannah arrives at Liverpool, United Kingdom. She is the first steam-propelled vessel to cross the Atlantic, most of the journey was made under sail.

1820 Death of Manuel Belgrano, Argentine lawyer and politician (b. 1770)

1837 Death of William IV of the United Kingdom (b. 1765)

1837 England issues its first stamp, one pence Queen Victoria.

1837 King William IV of England dies.

1837 Queen Victoria at age 18 ascends British throne following death of William.

1837 Queen Victoria succeeds to the British throne.

1858 Birth of Charles W. Chesnutt, American writer (d. 1932)

1860 Birth of Jack Worrall, Australian cricketer, footballer, and coach (d. 1937)

1861 Birth of Frederick Hopkins, English biochemist, recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine (d. 1947)

1862 Barbu Catargiu, the Prime Minister of Romania, is assassinated.

1863 First bank chartered in US (National Bank of Davenport Iowa).

1863 West Virginia admitted as 35th US state.

1863 West Virginia is admitted as the 35th U.S. state.

1866 Death of Bernhard Riemann, German mathematician (b. 1826)

1867 US President Andrew Johnson announces purchase of Alaska.

1868 Birth of Helen Miller Shepard philanthropist/established Hall of Fame.

1869 Death of Toshizou Hijikata, Shinsengumi vice-commander (b. 1835)

1870 Death of Jules de Goncourt, French writer (b. 1830)

1871 Ku Klux Klan trials begin in federal court in Oxford Mississippi.

1872 Birth of George Carpenter, the 5th General of The Salvation Army (d. 1948)

1874 First US Lifesaving Medal awarded (Lucian Clemons).

1877 Alexander Graham Bell installs the world’s first commercial telephone service in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

1877 Alexander Graham Bell installs world’s first commercial telephone service in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

1887 Birth of Kurt Schwitters, German painter and writer (d. 1948)

1891 Birth of John A. Costello, second Taoiseach of the Republic of Ireland (d. 1976)

1893 Lizzie Borden found innocent in New Bedford Massachusetts

1893 Lizzie Borden is acquitted of murdering her stepmother and father.

1894 Birth of George Delacorte New York City, philanthropist/publisher (Dell Books).

1895 A Charlois discovers asteroid #404 Arsinoe.

1895 First female doctor of science earned (Caroline Willard Baldwin).

1895 Nicaragua, El Salvador and Honduras form a short-lived confederation.

1896 Birth of Wilfrid Pelletier, French Canadian conductor (d. 1982)

1899 A branch of the Royal Mint opens in Perth, Western Australia for coinage of gold sovereigns.

1899 Birth of Helen Traubel Saint Louis, Missouri, soprano (or 6/16/1903).

1903 Birth of Glenna Collett Vare Rhode Island, National American Golf champion (1922, 1925, 1928-30, 1935).

1905 Birth of Lillian Hellman, American playwright (d. 1984)

1906 Birth of Bob Howard Newton Massachusetts, singer/pianist (Sing it Again).

1906 Death of John Clayton Adams, British Landscape Artist (b. 1840)

1907 Birth of Lillian Hellman playwright (Toys in the Attic, Little Foxes).

1907 First Portland Rose festival.

1909 Birth of Errol Flynn, Australian actor (d. 1959)

1910 “Krazy Kat” comic strip by George Herriman debuts in New York Journal.

1911 Birth of Gail Patrick Birmingham Alabama, USA; actress (My Man Godfrey, Love Crazy).

1911 NAACP incorporates (New York).

1912 Birth of Anthony Buckeridge, English author (d. 2004)

1912 New York Giants Josh Devore steals four bases in an inning (second and third twice).

1913 Three of first four New York Yankees hit-by-pitch en route to a record six hit batsman.

1915 Birth of Terence Young, British film director (d. 1994)

1916 Birth of Jean-Jacques Bertrand, premier of Quebec (d. 1973)

1919 150 die at the Teatro Yaguez fire, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico.

1919 Birth of Bruce Gordon London England; actor (Frank Nitti-Untouchables).

1919 Roy W. Allen opens his first root beer stand, in Lodi, California. His root beer sells for 5c a glass.

1920 Birth of DeForest Kelley Atlanta, Georgia, USA; actor (Dr Leonard McCoy-Star Trek).

1920 New York Yankees win protest of 1-0 Chicago White Sox win and game is replayed.

1921 29.2 cm (11.5 inches) of rainfall, Circle, Montana (state record).

1924 Birth of Chet Atkins in Luttrell, Tennessee, USA; guitarist (Me and My Guitar) (dies 2001).

1925 Death of Josef Breuer, Austrian psychologist (b. 1842)

1928 Birth of Jean-Marie Le-Pen in France; leader of National Front party.

1930 Birth of Magdalena Abakanowicz, Polish artist

1931 Birth of Olympia Dukakis, American actress

1933 Birth of Jean Boiteux in France; 400m freestyle swimmer (Olympic-gold-1952).

1934 Birth of Rossana Podesta, Italian actress

1935 Birth of Len Dawson, Former football player

1936 Jesse Owens of the US sets 100m record at 10.2 seconds.

1937 Birth of Jerry Keller, pop singer and songwriter

1939 Benny Goodman’s Song School ends its radio series.

1939 C Jackson discovers asteroid #1817 Katanga.

1939 Test flight of first rocket plane using liquid propellants.

1940 Birth of Eugen Drewermann, German theologian

1941 Birth of Ulf Merbold, German physicist and astronaut

1942 Birth of Brian Wilson in Inglewood, California, USA; singer (The Beach Boys – “In My Room”).

1943 National Congress of Racial Equality organizes.

1943 New QuTbec (Chubb) Crater discovered in northern QuTbec (3.5 km diameter).

1943 Sweden’s Gunther Hagg beats favorite Greg Rice by 35 yards in 5000m at national Amateur Athletic Union track and field championship in New York.

1944 Birth of Cheryl Holdridge, American actress

1945 Birth of Anne Murray in Nova Scotia, Canada; singer (“Snow Bird”).

1945 Death of Bruno Frank, German author (b. 1878)

1946 Birth of Bob Vila, television presenter

1947 Benjamin ‘Bugsy’ Siegel, gangster, shot dead in Beverly Hills, California.

1947 Birth of Dolores “LaLa” Brooks, American singer (the Crystals)

1947 Death of Bugsy Siegel, American gangster (whacked) (b. 1906)

1947 US President Harry Truman vetoes Taft-Hartley Act.

1948 Birth of Ludwig Scotty, President of Nauru

1948 Toast of the Town, later The Ed Sullivan Show, debuts.

1948 West German Finance Minister Ludwig Erhard eliminates most price controls and introduces a new currency, the “Deutsche mark”.

1949 Birth of Lionel Richie; singer (The Commodores, “Hello”, “Penny Lover”).

1950 Joe Dimaggio’s 2,000th hit, New York Yankees beat Cleveland Indians 8-2.

1951 Birth of Tress MacNeille, American voice actress

1952 Birth of John Goodman, American actor

1952 Death of Luigi Fagioli, Italian race car driver (b. 1898)

1953 Birth of Brian Duffy in Boston, Massachusetts, USA; Major US Air Force/astronaut (STS 45).

1954 Birth of Michael Anthony; rock bassist/singer (Van Halen – “Pretty Woman”, “Jump”, “1984”).

1956 A Venezuelan Super-Constellation crashed in Atlantic Ocean off Asbury Park, New Jersey killing 74 people.

1956 Birth of Ace Andres, American musician

1958 Birth of Chuck Wagner, American actor

1958 Death of Kurt Alder, German chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1902)

1960 Birth of John Taylor; rocker (Duran Duran – “Girls on Film”).

1960 Federation of Mali (and Senegal) becomes independent of France.

1960 Independence of Mali and Senegal.

1961 Birth of Karin Enke in German Democratic Republic; speed skater (Olympic-gold-1980, 1984).

1963 Birth of Viktor Ko?en�, Czech businessman

1963 First Mayor’s Trophy Game, New York Mets beat New York Yankees 6-2.

1963 Joseph Self, murderer, executed in Washington state (last for 25 years).

1963 Leave it to Beaver ends.

1963 The so-called “red telephone” is established between Soviet Union and United States following the Cuban Missile Crisis.

1963 US and USSR agree to set up “Hot Line”.

1965 Ira Louvin, country singer (Louvin Brothers), dies at age 41.

1966 Canada sells 336 million bushels (9.14 teragrams) of wheat to Soviet Union.

1966 Georges Lema?tre, originator of “big bang” theory, dies at age 71.

1967 Birth of Joseph William Cathcart; rock guitarist (Nelson – “Love and Affection”).

1967 Philadelphia Phillies’ Larry Jackson beats New York Mets for 18th straight time.

1968 Birth of Robert Rodrfguez, American filmmaker

1968 Jim Hines becomes first person to run 100 metres in under 10 seconds.

1969 150,000 attend Newport ’69, Jimi Hendrix gets $120,000 to appear.

1969 Jacques Chaban-Delmas becomes Prime Minister of France.

1970 Baltimore Orioles’ Brooks Robinson get his 2,000 career hit, a three run home run.

1970 Birth of Russell Garcia, British field hockey player

1971 Birth of Jeordie White, American bassist

1972 Death of Howard Deering Johnson, founder of Howard Johnson’s (b. 1897)

1973 Birth of Chino Moreno, American musician (Deftones)

1973 Ezeiza massacre in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Snipers fired upon left-wing peronists. At least 13 are killed and more than 300 injured.

1974 Felix Aguilar Observatory discovers asteroid #2124 Nissen.

1977 Birth of Stef�n H. �feigsson, Icelandic space engineer

1977 Oil begins to flow through the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS).

1977 Oil first enters Trans-Alaska pipeline, exits 38 days later at Valdez.

1978 Birth of Frank Lampard, English footballer

1978 Death of Mark Robson, Canadian film director and producer (b. 1913)

1978 First six teams of Women’s Pro Basketball League (WBL) granted-Iowa.

1978 In Greece, a magnitude 6.6 earthquake occurs, centered about 30 kilometres northeast of Thessaloniki. At least 50 people killed, and extensive damage in the Thessaloniki area. The shock is felt throughout Bulgaria and southern Yugoslavia.

1979 Bill Stewart, ABC television news correspondant, and his interpreter Juan Espinosa are executed by a Nicaraguan National Guard soldier while attempting to film war destruction in Nicaragua. The murders are caught on tape, and the footage is later shown on news broadcasts.

1980 Birth of Dami�n A. Fern�ndez Beanato; Newsweek and ANSA journalist.

1980 Death of Amy Key Clarke, English mystical poet (born 1892).

1980 Roberto Duran starts his classic boxing trilogy with Sugar Ray Leonard by defeating him in Canada by a decision in 15 rounds, to gain the WBC world Welterweight championship.

1981 Birth of Alisan Porter; American actress and singer.

1982 Pete Rose becomes the fifth major leaguer to appear in 3000 games.

1983 LZW patent filed in USA.

1983 New York Yankees’ Bobby Murcer retires.

1984 The biggest exam shake-up in the British education system in over ten years is announced, with O-level and CSE exams to be replaced by a new exam, the GCSE.

1986 Tim Herbert, comedian (Dagmar’s Canteen), dies at age 71.

1988 Birth of Shefali Chowdhury, British actress.

1988 New York City WABC-AM becomes the flagship radio station of the New Jersey Devils.

1989 Death of Hilmar Baunsgaard, Danish politician (born 1920).

1990 Asteroid Eureka discovered.

1990 In Iran, a magnitude 7.4 earthquake occurs. One of the world’s most destructive earthquakes. Estimated 40,000 to 50,000 people killed, more than 60,000 injured, 400,000 or more homeless and extensive damage and landslides.

1990 The asteroid Eureka is discovered.

1991 Decision of the Bundestag (in Bonn) that Berlin should become the German capital.

1991 German parliament decides to move the capital from Bonn back to Berlin.

1992 In Estonia, kroon currency replaces the Soviet ruble.

1993 A 7.5 earthquake hits Japan, killing 385 people.

1993 Death of Vince Foster, Deputy White House Counsel (suicide) (b. 1945)

1993 John Paxson’s three-point shot in Game six of the National Basketball Association Finals helps the Chicago Bulls secure a 99-98 win over the Phoenix Suns, and their third consecutive championship.

1994 Death of Jay Miner, American computer pioneer (born 1932).

1995 Death of Emil Cioran, Romanian philosopher and essayist (born 1911).

1995 Oil multinational Royal Dutch Shell caves in to international pressure and abandons plans to dump the Brent Spar oil rig at sea. The platform will be towed to Norway for dismantling on land.

1995 The Walt Disney Company announces plans for a fourth theme park in Florida: Disney’s Animal Kingdom. The new park is expected to cost US$760 million to create, over a 200-hectare area. It is due to open in 1998.

1997 Birth of Maria Lark, Russian-born American actress.

1997 Death of Lawrence Payton, American singer (The Four Tops) (b. 1938)

1998 Death of Conrad Schumann, East German border guard (born 1942).

1999 Death of Clifton Fadiman, American author (b. 1902)

2000 Andrea Yates drowns her five children in a bathtub in their Houston, Texas home.

2001 In Germany Heinz Josef Algermissen is named the bishop of Fulda.

2001 Pervez Musharraf becomes president of Pakistan.

2001 Pervez Musharraf becomes President of Pakistan after the resignation of Muhammad Rafiq Tarar.

2001 With his 38th homerun of the season, Barry Bonds breaks the major league record for home runs hit before the All-Star game.

2002 Death of Erwin Chargaff, Austrian biochemist (b. 1905)

2003 Death of Bob Stump, U.S. Congressman from Arizona (b. 1927)

2003 Formation of Wikimedia Foundation announced.

2003 LZW patent expires in USA.

2003 The North East MRT Line, the world’s first fully automated and driverless subway opens in Singapore.

2004 Death of Jim Bacon, Premier of Tasmania (born 1950).

2004 Ken Griffey, Jr. of the Cincinnati Reds hits his 500th career home run, the 20th major league player to reach this mark.

2004 Retief Goosen wins the U.S. Open at Shinnecock Hills Golf Club.

2005 Death of Jack Kilby, American electrical engineer, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physics (b. 1923)

2006 The Miami Heat win the NBA Finals over the Dallas Mavericks, 4-2.

2007 Death of Trevor Henry, New Zealand Justice (born 1902).

2007 The Argentinian team Boca Juniors beat the Brazilian team Gr?mio to win the Copa Libertadores 2007.

2008 The Janus-2 satellite is launched from the Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, atop a Delta-2 rocket. The satellite will be used for measuring the shape of the world’s oceans.

2009 A suicide truck bomb near a Shia mosque in Taza, near Kirkuk, Iraq, kills 72, injures about 200 others.

2009 Ground is broken in New Mexico, USA, on the construction site of Spaceport America, the world’s first purpose-built commercial spaceport. It will cost the New Mexico government almost US$200 million.

2009 The Dave Matthews Band goes to No.1 on the Billboard album chart with “Big Whiskey and the GrooGrux King”.

2010 Abdolmalek Rigi, leader of Sunni militant group Jundullah, is executed by hanging in Tehran, Iran for his involvement in bombings and raids in Sistan-Baluchistan province.

2010 Britain’s Graeme McDowell takes a one-shot victory to win the U.S. Open of golf at the Pebble Beach Golf links in California, the first European win in 40 years.

2010 Juan Manuel Santos of the Social National Unity Party wins the final round of Colombia’s presidential elections, with about 69 percent of ballots.

2010 Manute Bol, 7-foot 7-inch (2.3m) NBA basketball legend (Washington Bullets) from southern Sudan, dies at age 47 of kidney problems in Virginia, USA.

2010 Rain and landslides in southern China kill 132 people, with 86 others missing. An estimated 68,000 houses are damaged and 800,000 residents are evacuated.