This Day in History July 4th.

1054 A supernova is observed by the Chinese, the Arabs and possibly Amerindians near the star ? Tauri. For several months it remains bright enough to be seen during the day. Its remnants form the Crab Nebula.

1054 The Chinese, the Arabs and possibly Amerindians observe a bright supernova, the remnants of which form the Crab Nebula.

1187 Death of Raynald of Chatillon, Prince of Antioch (executed)

1187 The Crusades: Battle of Hattin – Saladin defeats Guy of Lusignan, King of Jerusalem.

1330 Birth of Ashikaga Yoshiakira, Japanese shogun (d. 1367)

1477 Birth of the historian, Aventinus (Johannes Turmair) in Abensberg, Germany; publishes a Latin grammar and a history of the Bavarian nobility.

1541 Death of Pedro de Alvarado, Spanish explorer (b. 1495)

1546 Birth of Murat III, Ottoman Sultan (d. 1595)

1603 Death of Philippe de Monte, Flemish composer (b. 1521)

1623 Death of William Byrd, English composer

1627 Thomas Middleton Elizabethan dramatist, dies (birth date unknown).

1631 The first employment agency opens in Paris, France, the Bureau d’Adresse, opeend by ThTophraste, charging 3 sous to employers and employees.

1636 City of Providence, Rhode Island form.

1636 City of Providence, Rhode Island forms.

1653 Barebones Parliment goes into session in England.

1694 Birth of Louis-Claude Daquin, French composer (d. 1772)

1712 12 slaves are executed in New York for starting an uprising that killed 9 whites

1715 Birth of Christian Gellert Saxony, poet, novelist (Fables and Tales).

1719 Birth of Michel-Jean Sedaine, French dramatist (d. 1797)

1742 Death of Guido Grandi, Italian mathematician (b. 1671)

1753 Birth of Jean-Pierre-Francois Blanchard first balloon flights in England, US.

1754 Death of Philippe NTricault Destouches, French dramatist (b. 1680)

1761 Death of Samuel Richardson, English writer (b. 1689)

1776 American Revolutionary War: The Continental Congress approves a Declaration of Independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain.

1776 In Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the Continental Congress adopts the Declaration of Independence, proclaiming the independence of the United States of America from Great Britain and its king. Twelve colonies adopt the declaration.

1780 Death of Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine, Austrian military leader (b. 1712)

1787 Death of Charles de Rohan, prince de Soubise, Marshal of France (b. 1715)

1789 First US tariff act.

1799 Birth of King Oscar I of Sweden, French general (d. 1859)

1802 At West Point, New York the United States Military Academy opens.

1802 US Military Academy officially opens (West Point, New York).

1803 The Louisiana Purchase is announced to the American people.

1804 Birth of Nathaniel Hawthorne, American writer (d. 1864)

1807 Birth of Giuseppe Garibaldi unified Italy.

1810 The French occupy Amsterdam.

1817 At Rome, New York, United States, construction on the Erie Canal begins.

1817 Construction on Erie Canal begins with ground-breaking in Utica, New York, USA. The canal will run 350 miles between Buffalo and Albany.

1819 William Herschel makes last telescopic observation of 1819 comet.

1821 Death of Richard Cosway, English artist (b. 1742)

1826 Birth of Stephen Foster in Lawrencevil, Pennsylvania, USA; composer (“Oh! Susanna”, “Swanee River”).

1826 Death of Thomas Jefferson 3rd President of the United States (b. 1743)

1826 John Adams and Thomas Jefferson, second and third US presidents, die.

1827 Slavery abolished in New York.

1827 Slavery is abolished in New York State.

1828 Construction begins on Band O (Baltimore-Ohio) first US passenger railroad.

1831 Death of James Monroe, 5th President of the United States (b. 1758)

1831 James Monroe, 5th US president, dies.

1832 “America” first sung publicly.

1836 Wisconsin Territory formed.

1837 Grand Junction Railway – the world’s first long-distance railway – opens between Birmingham and Liverpool, England.

1837 Grand Junction Railway, world’s first long-distance railway, opens between Birmingham and Liverpool.

1838 The Iowa Territory is organized.

1840 The Cunard Line’s 700 ton wooden paddle steamer RMS Britannia departs from Liverpool bound for Halifax, Nova Scotia on the first transatlantic passenger cruise.

1845 Birth of Thomas Barnardo, Irish humanitarian (d. 1905)

1845 Near Concord, Massachusetts, Henry David Thoreau embarks on a two-year experiment in simple living at Walden Pond (see Walden).

1845 Texas Congress votes for annexation to US.

1845 Thoreau moves into his shack on Walden Pond.

1847 Birth of James Anthony Bailey Detroit, circus impresario (Barnum and Bailey).

1848 Death of Frantois-RenT de Chateaubriand, French writer (b. 1768)

1848 Francois Rene de Chateaubriand French novelist/politician, dies.

1848 In Washington, D.C., construction begins on a 24,500-pound block of white marble monument to president George Washington.

1850 Death of William Kirby, English entomologist (b. 1759)

1854 Birth of Victor Babe?, Romanian bacteriologist (d. 1926)

1855 In Brooklyn, New York, the first edition of Walt Whitman’s book of poems titled Leaves of Grass is published.

1857 Death of William L. Marcy, American statesman (b. 1786)

1859 Austro-Sardinian War: The Battle of Magenta.

1861 President Abraham Lincoln asks Congress for $400 million and 400,000 men to suppress the Southern insurrection.

1862 Lewis Carroll creates Alice in Wonderland for Alice P Liddell.

1862 Lewis Carroll tells Alice Liddell a story that would grow into Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland and its sequels.

1863 American Civil War: Battle of Vicksburg – Vicksburg, Mississippi surrenders to Ulysses S. Grant after 47 days of siege.

1863 Boise, Idaho founded (now capital of Idaho).

1863 General Robert Lee’s army withdraws from Gettysburg, retreating to the South. The Battle of Gettysburg resulted in total casualties of about 48,000.

1865 Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland is published.

1865 First edition of “Alice in Wonderland” is published.

1866 Firecracker thrown in wood starts fire destroying half of Portland, Maine.

1867 Birth of Stephen Mather organized US National Park Service.

1872 Birth of Calvin Coolidge; 29th US president (Republican) (1923-29), (dies 1933).

1873 Aquarium opens in Woodward Gardens.

1874 Social Democratic Workmen’s Party of North America formed.

1875 Birth of Giovanni and Giacomo Tocci Italy, siamese twins.

1875 White Democrats kill several blacks in terrorist attacks in Vicksburg.

1876 First public exhibition of electric light in San Francisco.

1878 Birth of George M Cohan; American entertainer.

1880 Birth of George Mullin pitcher (Detroit Tigers-no-hitter on July 4, 1912).

1881 Birth of Ulysses S. Grant III, American soldier (d. 1968)

1881 Brooker T Washington establishes Tuskegee Institute.

1881 Death of Johan Vilhelm Snellman, Finnish statesman (b. 1806)

1881 In Alabama, the Tuskegee Institute opens.

1882 Birth of Louis B. Mayer, American film producer (d. 1957)

1882 Death of Joseph Brackett, American composer (b. 1797)

1882 Telegraph Hill Observatory opens in San Francisco.

1883 Birth of Rube Goldberg; cartoonist, made the easy outrageously difficult (dies 1970).

1883 Buffalo Bill Cody presents first wild west show, North Platte, Nebr.

1884 First US bullfight held (Dodge City Ks).

1884 Statue of Liberty presented to US in Paris.

1886 First scheduled Canadian transcontinental train arrives in Port Moody, British Columbia.

1886 First scheduled transcontinental passenger train reaches Port Moody, British Columbia, Canada.

1887 Qauid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah joined Sindh-Madrasa-tul-Islam.

1888 First organized rodeo competition held, Prescott, Arizona.

1889 Washington state constitutional convention holds first meeting.

1891 Death of Hannibal Hamlin, U.S. Vice President (b. 1809)

1892 Western Samoa changes the International Date Line, so that year there were 367 days in this country, with two occurrences of Monday, July 4.

1893 A Borrelly discovers asteroid #369 Aeria.

1894 Birth of Henry Carlson basketball coach (originated figure 8 play).

1894 Elwood Haynes successfully tests one of first US autos at 6 MPH.

1894 Republic of Hawaii established.

1894 The short-lived Republic of Hawaii is proclaimed by Sanford B. Dole.

1896 Birth of Mao Dun, Chinese writer (d. 1981)

1898 Birth of Johnny Lee Missouri; actor (Calhoun-Amos ‘n’ Andy).

1898 “La Bourgogne” collides with “Cromartyshire”, 560 drown.

1898 US flag hoisted over Wake Island (Spanish-American War).

1900 Birth of Louis “Satchmo” Armstrong New Orleans Louisiana, jazz musician (Hello Dolly).

1901 Birth of Louis Armstrong, American musician (d. 1971)

1901 Death of Johannes Schmidt, German linguist (b. 1843)

1902 Birth of George Murphy New Haven Connecticut, (Senator-Republican-California)/actor/dancer (MGM Parade).

1902 Death of Swami Vivekananda, Indian spiritual leader (b. 1863)

1903 Birth of Flor Peeters Antwerp Belgium, organist (Lied Symphony).

1903 Pacific Cable (San Francisco, Hawaii, Guam, Phil) opens, President Theodore Roosevelt sends message.

1904 Birth of Angela Baddeley, English actress (d. 1976)

1905 Birth of Lionel Trilling author (1969 Poses Award, Liberal Imagination).

1905 Death of ´┐ŻlisTe Reclus, French anarchist (b. 1830)

1905 Philadelphia Athletics beat Boston Red Sox 4-2 in 20 inning game.

1907 Birth of Gordon Griffith, American director (d. 1958)

1908 New York Giants George “Hooks” Witse no-hits Philadelphia Phillies, 1-0 in 10 inn.

1909 Birth of Alec Templeton Cardiff Wales, pianist/composer (Concertino Lirico).

1910 African-American boxer Jack Johnson knocks out white boxer Jim Jeffries in a heavyweight boxing match sparking race riots across the United States.

1910 Birth of Gloria Stuart, American actress

1910 Death of Giovanni Schiaparelli, Italian astronomer (b. 1835)

1910 Reno, Nevada, hosts boxing match between black heavyweight champion Jack Johnson and white challenger Jim Jeffries. Johnson knocks out Jeffries in 15 rounds.

1911 Birth of Mitch Miller Rochester New York, sing along with Mitch (Yellow Rose of Texas).

1911 Ty Cobb goes 0 for 4 and ends a 40 game hit streak.

1912 Birth of Virginia Graham Chicago Illinois, TV personality (Girl Talk, Where Was I).

1912 Detroit Tiger George Mullen no-hits Saint Louis Browns, 7-0.

1914 First US motorcycle race (300 miles, Dodge City, Kansas).

1915 Birth of Timmie Rogers Detroit Michigan, singer (Sugar Hill Time).

1916 Birth of Tokyo Rose WW II propagandist.

1916 Death of Alan Seeger, American war poet (b. 1888)

1917 Birth of Manolete, Spanish bullfighter (d. 1947)

1918 Altar dedicated at full-scale replica of Stonehenge at Maryhill, Washington.

1918 Birth of Abigail Van Buren twin sister, advice columnist.

1918 Bolsheviks kill Tsar Nicholas II of Russia and his family (Julian calendar date).

1918 Ottoman sultan Mehmed VI ascends to the throne.

1919 Cincinnati Reds are 10.5 games back in National League, and win the World Series.

1919 Jack Dempsey beats Jess Willard in Cuba for heavyweight championship.

1919 M Wolf discovers asteroid #914 Palisana.

1920 Birth of Leona Helmsley (wife of Harry), real estate billionaire.

1921 Birth of Gerard Debreu France, economist (Nobel Prize 1983).

1922 Death of Lothar von Richthofen, German pilot (b. 1894)

1923 Birth of Rudolf Friedrich, Swiss Federal Councilor

1924 Birth of Eva Marie Saint, American actress

1925 44 die when the Dreyfus Hotel in Boston, Massachusetts, USA collapses.

1925 New York Yankees’ Lefty Grove beats Oakland Athletics’ Herb Pennock 1-0 in 15 innings.

1926 Birth of Alfredo Di Stefano, Argentine footballer

1926 Death of Pier Giorgio Frassati, Italian mountaineer (b. 1901)

1927 Birth of Gina Lollobrigida, Italian actress

1927 First flight of the Lockheed Vega.

1927 The Lockheed Vega US military plane first flies.

1929 Birth of Al Davis in Brocton, Massachusetts, USA; NFL team owner (Los Angeles Raiders).

1930 Birth of George Steinbrenner; New York Yankees owner/ship builder/horse owner.

1931 Birth of Stephen Boyd, Northern Irish actor (d. 1977)

1931 Death of Buddie Petit, American jazz musician (b. 1895)

1933 Work begins on Oakland Bay Bridge.

1934 Death of Maria Sk?odowska-Curie, Polish scientist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry and Physics (b. 1867)

1934 Joe Louis wins his first professional boxing match.

1934 Leo Szilard patents the chain-reaction design for the atomic bomb.

1934 Leo Szilard patents the chain-reaction design for the atomic bomb.

1938 Birth of Bill Withers in West Virginia, USA; rhythm and blues singer (“Lean on Me”).

1938 Death of Suzanne Lenglen, French tennis player (b. 1899)

1938 First game at Shribe Park, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA; Boston Braves beat Philadelphia Phillies 10-5.

1938 Suzanne Lenglen, six-time Wimbeldon tennis champ, dies at age 39 of anemia.

1939 Boston Red Sox’ Jim Tabor hits two grand slams in one game.

1939 Lou Gehrig, recently diagnosed with Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, tells a crowd at Yankee Stadium that he considered himself “The luckiest man on the face of the earth” as he announces his retirement from major league baseball.

1939 New York Yankees retire first uniform (Lou Gehrig #4), first Old Timers Day.

1941 Death of Antoni ?omnicki, Polish mathematician (b. 1881)

1941 Howard Florey and Norman Heatley meet for the first time, 11 days later successfully recreate penicillin.

1941 Mass murder of Polish scientists and writers, committed by Nazi Germans in captured Polish city of Lw=w.

1942 Birth of Floyd Little, American football player

1943 Birth of Emerson Boozer; NFL running back (New York Jets)/sportscaster.

1943 General Wladyslaw Sikorski, head of Poland’s government in exile, is killed in a plane crash off Gibraltar.

1946 After 381 years of colonial rule, the Philippines is granted full independence by the United States.

1946 Birth of Michael Milken in Los Angeles, California, USA; partner (International Capital Access Group).

1946 The Philippines gain independence from the USA.

1947 “Indian Independence Bill” is presented before British House of Commons, suggesting bifurcation of British India into two sovereign coutries – India and Pakistan.

1947 In the desert outside Roswell, New Mexico, USA, an alien flying craft (supposedly) crashes.

1948 Birth of Rene Arnoux in France; Formula-1 racer (6th place-1980).

1950 Birth of David Jensen; rocker, British disc jockey.

1950 First broadcast by Radio Free Europe.

1950 Radio Free Europe first broadcasts.

1950 US President Harry Truman signs public law 600 (Puerto Ricans can write own consitution).

1951 Birth of Kathleen Kennedy Townsend, American politician

1952 Birth of -lvaro Uribe VTlez, Colombian politician

1954 West Germany beats Hungary 3-2 for soccer’s 5th World Cup in Bern.

1955 Birth of John Waite; singer (The Babies / Bad English – “Forget Me Not”).

1956 Independence National Historical Park established in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

1956 US most intense rainfall (1.23 inches in one minute) at Unionville, Maryland.

1958 Birth of Kirk Pengilly in Sydney, Australia; rocker (Inxs – “Kiss the Dirt”).

1959 America’s new 49-star flag honoring Alaska statehood unfurled.

1959 Cayman Islands separates from Jamaica, becomes a crown colony.

1959 With the admission of Alaska as the 49th U.S. state earlier in the year, the 49-star flag of the United States debuts in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

1960 America’s new 50-star flag honoring Hawaiian statehood first unfurled.

1960 Birth of Sid Eudy, professional wrestler

1960 Due to the post-Independence Day admission of Hawaii as the 50th U.S. state on August 21, 1959, the 50-star flag of the United States debuts in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania almost ten and a half months later (see Flag Act).

1960 Mickey Mantle hits career homer number 300.

1961 Birth of Richard Garriott, English video game designer

1961 Richard Garriott is born; video game designer.

1962 Birth of Pam Shriver; tennis player (US Open’s Doubles 1983, 1984, 1986, 1987).

1962 Rex Bell, cowboy (Cowboys and Injuns), dies at age 56.

1963 Birth of Henri Leconte in France; tennis player (French finalist 1988).

1963 Pam Shriver is born; tennis player.

1964 Birth of Mark Allen Slaughter in Las Vegas, Nevada, USA; guitarist (Slaughter – “Stick it Live”).

1966 Birth of Lee Reherman, American actor

1966 President Lyndon B. Johnson signs the Freedom of Information Act into United States law. The act goes into effect the next year.

1966 US President Lyndon Johnson signs Freedom of Information Act.

1967 Birth of Vinny Castilla, Mexican baseball player

1967 Philadelphia Phillies’ Clay Dairymple ties National League record of six walks in doubleheader.

1967 US Freedom of Information Act goes into effect.

1969 140,000 attend Atlanta Pop Festival featuring Led Zeppelin and Janis Joplin.

1969 Ann Jones defeats Billie Jean King for Wimbeldon Ladies championship.

1970 100 injured in race rioting in Asbury Park, New Jersey, USA.

1970 Chartered Dan-Air Comet plane crashes into mountains north of Barcelona, Spain killing 112 vacationing Britons.

1970 Death of Barnett Newman, American artist (b. 1905)

1970 Harold Vanderbilt, America’s Cup winner (1930, 1934, 1937), dies at age 85.

1970 Popular syndicated radio show, “American Top 40″, hosted by “Casey Kasem, debuts.

1971 Death of August Derleth, American writer and editor (b. 1909)

1973 Birth of Gackt, Japanese singer

1974 Birth of La’Roi Glover, American football player

1975 American bicentennial commemorative coins (quarter-dollar, half-dollar, and dollar) are released to circulation.

1975 Death of Georgette Heyer, English author (b. 1902)

1976 Birth of Daijiro Kato, Japanese motorcycle racer (d. 2003)

1976 Death of Antoni S?onimski, Polish poet (b. 1895)

1976 Israeli commandos raid Entebbe airport in Uganda, rescuing all of the passengers and crew of an Air France jetliner seized by Palestinian terrorists.

1976 Raid on Entebbe-Israel rescues 229 Air France passengers.

1976 The United States celebrates its bicentennial.

1977 Chicago Cubs use fielder Larry Bittner as a pitcher.

1977 Death of Gersh Budker, Russian physicist (b. 1918)

1978 L Chernykh discovers asteroid #3332.

1979 Birth of Martin Shearman-Brettle, English composer

1979 The first baby is born at Disneyland, Teresa Salcedo, born to Rosa and Elias Salcedo.

1980 Birth of Max Elliott Slade; American actor.

1980 Nolan Ryan strikes out Ceasar Geronimo to record his 3000th career strike out.

1982 Death of Terry Higgins, early British casualty of AIDS (born 1945).

1982 Four Iranian diplomats are kidnapped upon Israel’s invasion of Lebanon.

1982 Four Iranian diplomats kidnapped by Lebanese militia in Lebanon.

1982 Jimmy Connors beats John McEnroe for his last Wimbeldon championship.

1983 Birth of Ben Jorgensen; American singer, guitarist, member of Armor For Sleep.

1983 New York Yankees’ Dave Righetti no-hits the Boston Red Sox.

1984 Death of Jimmie Spheeris, American singer-songwriter (born 1949).

1984 Richard Petty wins his 200th career NASCAR victory at the Firecracker 400 in Daytona, Florida.

1984 Yuri Sedykh of USSR throws hammer a record 86.33 metres.

1985 In a 19-inning game (6 hours 10 minutes), which goes until just before 4:00 AM the next day, the New York Mets beat the Atlanta Braves, 16-13.

1985 Ruth Lawrence, 13, achieves a first in mathematics at Oxford University, becoming the youngest British person ever to earn a first-class degree and is the youngest known graduate of Oxford University.

1986 Death of Oscar Zariski, Russian mathematician (born 1899).

1987 German Klaus Barbie, “Butcher of Lyon” convicted by a French court to life imprisonment for crimes against humanity.

1987 In France, former Gestapo chief Klaus Barbie (aka the “Butcher of Lyon”) is convicted of crimes against humanity and is sentenced to life imprisonment.

1987 Martina Navratilova wins 6th straight Wimbeldon, defeating Steffi Graf.

1988 Birth of Princess Irina of Prussia.

1988 Death of Adrian Adonis, American wrestler (born 1954).

1988 Steffan Edberg beats Boris Becker for Wimbeldon crown.

1991 Death of Victor Chang, Australian physician (murdered) (born 1936).

1991 In Timor, a magnitude 6.9 earthquake occurs. Two events about 2.5 seconds apart. Twenty-three people killed, 181 injured, at least 5,400 left homeless and about 1,150 buildings destroyed.

1992 Death of Astor Piazzolla, Argentinian composer (b. 1921)

1992 USS George Washington (CVN-73), a Nimitz Class aircraft carrier of the United States Navy is commissioned at Norfolk, Virginia.

1994 Death of Joey Marella, American wresting referee (b. 1964)

1995 Birth of Marfa Isabel, Spanish singer

1995 Death of Eva Gabor, Hungarian actress (born 1919).

1995 United Kingdom Prime Minister John Major wins his battle to remain leader of the Conservative Party.

1997 Death of Charles Kuralt, American television reporter (born 1934).

1997 NASA’s Pathfinder space probe lands on the surface of Mars.

1999 David Beckham marries Victoria Adams in Ireland

1999 Death of Leo Garel, American artist and cartoonist (b.1917)

2000 Death of Gustaw Herling-Grudzinski, Polish writer (b. 1919)

2002 Death of Benjamin O. Davis Jr., U.S. general (born 1912).

2003 Death of Barry White, American singer (born 1944).

2004 Death of Jean-Marie Auberson, Swiss conductor (born 1920).

2004 Greece beats Portugal 1-0 to win the Euro 2004.

2004 Groundbreaking takes place for the Freedom Tower begins at Ground Zero in New York City.

2004 The cornerstone of the Freedom Tower is laid on the site of the World Trade Center in New York City. (This was largely a symbolic event; actual construction would not start for several weeks)

2005 Death of Hank Stram, American football coach (b. 1923)

2005 NASA’s “Copper bullet” from Deep Impact spacecraft hits Comet Tempel 1, creating a crater for scientific studies.

2005 The Deep Impact collider hits the comet Tempel 1.

2005 Violent anti-G8 demonstrations occur in Gleneagles, Scotland.

2006 North Korea tests four short-range missiles one medium-range missile, and a long-range Taepodong-2. The latter reportedly fails in mid-air over the Sea of Japan.

2006 Space Shuttle Discovery launches at 18:37:55 UTC to commence mission STS-121 for the first time in NASA history. It is the first Independence Day shuttle launch.

2007 Death of Baris Akarsu, Turkish musician (born 1979).

2007 In Turin, Italy, Fiat launches the Cinquecento (Fiat 500) automobile. Price is 10,500-14,500 euros (US$14,400-19,900).

2007 Sochi is elected as the host city of the 2014 Winter Olympics, during the 119th International Olympic Committee Session in Guatemala City.

2007 The 50-star U.S. flag becomes the longest-flying American flag, replacing the 48-star flag that flew from 1912 to 1959.

2008 At the U.S. Olympic swimming trials in Omaha, Nebraska, American swimmer Michael Phelps sets a world record in the 200-metre individual medley at 1:54.8.

2008 Death of Jesse Helms, American politician (five terms in Senate 1973-2003), at age 86.

2008 Opening of regular direct charter flights between China and Taiwan.

2009 Serena Williams defeats sister Venus at Wimbledon with a straight-sets victory 7-6 (7-3) 6-2 giving her a third Wimbledon title.

2009 The Organization of American States suspends Honduras due to the country’s recent political crisis after its refusal to reinstate President Zelaya.

2010 A two-day counternarcotics operation concludes in southern Helmand province, Afghanistan, resulting in the deaths of 63 drug smugglers and militants and destruction of 14.5 tonnes of drugs and drug-making chemicals.

2010 Big Red Mike wins the 151st running of the Queen’s Plate in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, attended by Queen Elizabeth II and the Duke of Edinburgh. The race winner receives a gold cup and 50 gold sovereigns, as well as 60 per cent of the total purse of $1 million.

2010 Bronislaw Komorowski is elected President of Poland, with 53 percent of the vote.

2010 Liam Broady and Tom Farquharson beat Lewis Burton and George Morgan 7-6, (7-4), 6-4 in the all-British mens’ doubles final at Wimbledon.

2010 Rafael Nadal wins his second Wimbledon men’s tennis title and his eighth career Grand Slam singles title, defeating Tomas Berdych 6-3, 7-5, 6-4.