This Day in History July 23

1099 Godfrey of Bouillon elected first Defender of the Holy Sepulchre of The Kingdom of Jerusalem

1210 Birth of Joan of England, Queen consort of Scotland, wife of Alexander II of Scotland (d. 1238)

1298 Battle of Falkirk – Edward I (Longshanks) of England and his longbowmen defeat William Wallace and his scottish schiltrons outside the town.

1298 English defeat Scots at Battle of Falkirk.

1362 Death of Louis of Durazzo, Italian soldier (poisoned) (b. 1324)

1387 Death of Franz Ackerman, Flemish statesman (b. 1330)

1456 Siege of Belgrade – John Hunyadi, Regent of Kingdom of Hungary defeats Mehmet II of Ottoman Empire

1461 Charles VII king of France (1422-61), dies at age 58.

1461 Death of King Charles VII of France (b. 1403)

1478 Birth of Philip I (the Handsome) first Habsburg king of Spain (1506).

1499 Battle of Dornach – The Swiss decisively defeat the Imperial army of Emperor Maximilian I.

1510 Birth of Alessandro de’ Medici, Duke of Florence (d. 1537)

1519 Birth of Pope Innocent IX (d. 1591)

1525 Death of Richard Wingfield, English diplomat

1535 Birth of Katarina Stenbock, wife of Gustav I of Sweden (d. 1621)

1540 Death of John Z�polya, King of Hungary

1559 Birth of Lawrence of Brindisi, Italian monk (d. 1619)

1587 Colony of Roanoke: A second group of English settlers arrive on Roanoke Island off of North Carolina to re-establish the deserted colony.

1587 Second English colony established on Roanoke Island off North Carolina.

1619 Death of Lawrence of Brindisi, Italian monk (b. 1559)

1621 Birth of Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury, English politician (d. 1683)

1645 Death of Gaspar de Guzm�n y Pimentel, Count-Duke of Olivares, Spanish statesman (b. 1587)

1676 Death of Pope Clement X (b. 1590)

1686 City of Albany, New York chartered.

1711 Birth of Georg Wilhelm Richmann, Russian physicist (d. 1753)

1713 Birth of Jacques-Germain Soufflot, French architect (d. 1780)

1713 Death of Jacques-Germain Soufflot, French architect (d. 1780)

1733 Birth of Mikhail Shcherbatov, Russian philosopher and writer (d. 1790)

1734 Death of Peter King, 1st Baron King, Lord Chancellor of England

1775 George Washington takes command of the troops.

1784 Birth of Friedrich Bessel, German mathematician and astronomer (d. 1846)

1789 Death of Joseph-Frantois Foulon, French administrator (executed) (b. 1715)

1793 Alexander Mackenzie reaches the Pacific Ocean becoming the first Euro-American to complete a transcontinental crossing north of Mexico.

1796 Cleveland, Ohio, founded by General Moses Cleaveland.

1796 Surveyors of the Connecticut Land Company name an area in Ohio “Cleveland” after Gen. Moses Cleaveland, the superintendent of the surveying party.

1802 Death of Marie Frantois Xavier Bichat, French anatomist (b. 1771)

1802 Marie-Fran?ois-Xavier Bichat a founder of histology, dies.

1805 Napoleonic Wars: War of the Third Coalition – inconclusive battle of Cape Finisterre fought between a combined French and Spanish fleets under Admiral Pierre-Charles Villeneuve of Spain and a British fleet under Admiral Robert Calder.

1812 Duke of Wellington defeats French at Battle of Salamanca, Spain.

1812 Napoleonic Wars: Peninsular War – Battle of Salamanca – British forces led by Arthur Wellesley (later the Duke of Wellington) defeat French troops near Salamanca, Spain.

1822 Birth of Gregor Mendel; monk/geneticist, discoverer of the laws of heredity.

1826 Death of Giuseppe Piazzi, Italian astronomer (b. 1746)

1826 Giuseppe Piazzi discoverer of first asteroid, dies.

1832 Death of Emperor Napoleon II of France (b. 1811)

1844 Birth of Rev William Archibald Spooner London, invented “spoonerisms”.

1849 Birth of Emma Lazarus poet (“The New Colossus”-base of Statue of Liberty).

1852 Death of Auguste Marmont, French marshal (b. 1774)

1854 J R Hind discovers asteroid #30 Urania.

1859 Birth of Emma Lazarus, American poet (d. 1887)

1864 American Civil War: Battle of Atlanta – Outside of Atlanta, Georgia, Confederate General John Bell Hood leads an unsuccessful attack on Union troops under General William T. Sherman on Bald Hill.

1864 Battle of Atlanta – Hood attacks Sherman and suffers terrible losses.

1882 Birth of Edward Hopper US painter (House by the Railroad).

1887 Birth of Gustav Hertz German quantum physicist (Nobel Prize 1925).

1888 Birth of Raymond Chandler Chicago, mystery writer (The Long Goodbye).

1890 Birth of Rose Kennedy; mom of John, Robert, and Ted.

1892 Birth of Arthur Seyss-Inquart Austrian chancellor (1930s).

1893 Birth of James Whale, English film director (d. 1957)

1895 Birth of Hans Rosbaud Graz Austria, conductor (Tonhalle Orchestra Znrich).

1898 Belgica crew see first sunrise in 1600 hours-first to endure Antarct winter.

1898 Birth of Alexander Calder sculptor (mobiles, stabiles).

1901 Birth of Charles Weidman Nebraska, modern dancer/choreographer (Candide).

1904 Death of Wilson Barrett, English actor (b. 1846)

1905 Birth of Doc Cramer, baseball player (d. 1990)

1905 Philadelphia Athletic’s Weldon Henley no-hits Saint Louis Browns, 6-0.

1908 Albert Fisher establishes the Fisher Body Company to manufacture carriage and automobile bodies.

1908 Birth of Amy Vanderbilt authority on etiquette (Complete Book of Etiquette).

1908 Death of William Randal Cremer, English politician and pacifist, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (b. 1828)

1908 W Lorenz discovers asteroid #665 Sabine.

1912 Games of the V Olympiad in Stockholm closes.

1913 Birth of Lucia Albanese soprano (New York Metropolitan Opera).

1915 Death of Sir Sandford Fleming, Canadian engineer and inventor (b. 1827)

1916 A bomb goes off during a Preparedness Day parade in San Francisco killing 10.

1916 Birth of Marcel Cerdan, French boxer (d. 1949)

1916 Death of James Whitcomb Riley, American author and poet (b. 1849)

1916 In San Francisco, California, a bomb explodes on Market Street during a Preparedness Day parade killing 10 and injuring 40.

1917 Alexander Kerensky becomes Russian Prime Minister.

1917 M Wolf discovers asteroids #879 Ricarda, #880 Herba and #881 Athene.

1918 Death of Indra Lal Roy, Indian World War I pilot (killed in combat) (b. 1898)

1918 Lightning kills 504 sheep in Utah’s Wasatch National Park.

1921 Birth of William Roth (Senator-Republican-Delaware).

1922 Death of Jokichi Takamine, Japanese chemist (b. 1854)

1923 Birth of Robert Dole; American politician (Senator-Republican-Kansas).

1923 Walter Johnson becomes the first to strikeout 3,000 in Major League Baseball.

1924 Birth of Margaret Whiting in Detroit, Michigan, USA; singer (Kreisler Bandstand, Strauss Family).

1926 105 degrees F (41 degrees C), Waterbury, Connecticut (state record).

1926 108 degrees F (42 degrees C), Troy, New York (state record).

1926 Cincinnati Reds’ Curt Walker ties record of two triples in an inning.

1927 Birth of George Hunter in South Africa; light heavyweight boxer (Olympics-gold-1948).

1928 Birth of Orson Bean, American film actor

1930 G Neujmin discovers asteroid #1306 Scythia.

1930 H Van Gent discovers asteroids #1666 van Gent, #1752 van Herk.

1932 Birth of Oscar de la Renta in Dominican Republic; designer (Coty Hall of Fame-1973).

1932 Death of Errico Malatesta, Italian anarchist (b. 1853)

1933 Wiley Post becomes first person to fly solo around the world traveling 15,596 miles in 7 days, 18 hours and 45 minutes.

1933 Wiley Post completes first round-the-world solo flight.

1934 Birth of Louise Fletcher, American actress

1934 Death of John Dillinger, American bank robber (shot) (b. 1903)

1934 John Dillinger is shot dead at Biograph Theater in Chicago, Illinois.

1934 Outside Chicago’s Biograph Theatre, “Public Enemy No. 1” John Dillinger is mortally wounded by FBI agents.

1935 C Jackson discovers asteroids #1359 Prieska and #1360 Tarka.

1936 Birth of Tom Robbins, American author

1936 Philadelphia Phillies’ John Moore hits three consecutive home runs.

1937 New Deal: The United States Senate votes down President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s proposal to add more justices to the Supreme Court of the United States.

1937 US Senate rejects President Franklin Roosevelt proposal to enlarge Supreme Court.

1938 Great Britain and France reject German proposal for four-power settlement of Sudeten problem.

1939 Birth of Terence Stamp, English actor

1940 Birth of Yuriy Klimov in USSR; team handball (Olympic-gold-1976).

1941 Birth of George Clinton; rocker (Testify, Funkadelics).

1942 Holocaust: The systematic deportation of Jews from the Warsaw Ghetto begins.

1942 The United States government begins compulsory civilian gasoline rationing due to the wartime demands.

1943 Allied forces capture Palermo, Sicily.

1943 Allied forces capture the Italian city of Palermo.

1943 Birth of Kay Bailey Hutchison, U.S. Senator from Texas

1944 Birth of Estelle Bennett in New York City, New York, USA; vocalist (Ronettes – “Be My Baby”).

1944 Soviets set up Polish Committee of National Liberation.

1944 The International Monetary Fund is created at the conference at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire.

1944 The Polish Committee of National Liberation publishes its manifesto, starting the period of Communist rule in Poland

1945 Birth of Bobby Sherman; actor/singer (Seattle).

1946 Birth of Estelle Bennett in New York City, New York, USA; rocker (The Ronettes).

1946 King David Hotel bombing: Irgun bombs King David Hotel in Jerusalem, headquarters of the British civil and military administration, killing 90.

1947 -8 degrees F (-13 degrees C), Charlotte Pass, New South Wales (Australian record).

1947 Birth of Don Henley; drummer/singer (The Eagles – “Desparado”, “Boys of Summer”).

1948 Birth of S.E. Hinton, American author

1949 Birth of Lasse Viren in Finland; 5000m/10,000m runner (Olympic-gold-1972, 1976).

1950 Death of William Lyon Mackenzie King, tenth Prime Minister of Canada (b. 1874)

1950 King Leopold, after six years in exile, returns to Belgium.

1952 Polish constitution is adopted.

1954 Birth of Lonette McKee, American actress

1955 Birth of Willem Dafoe, American actor

1955 First US Vice President to preside over cabinet meeting – Richard Nixon.

1955 Philadelphia Phillies longest win streak since 1892 hits 11.

1956 Birth of Michael Spinks; American middleweight boxer (Olympic-gold-1976).

1957 Birth of Dave Steib; pitcher (Toronto Blue Jays).

1958 Death of Mikhail Zoshchenko, Russian writer (b. 1895)

1960 Birth of Jon Oliva, American musician (Savatage)

1961 Birth of Keith Sweat, American singer

1962 Birth of Steve Albini, Writer, Recording Engineer

1962 Chicago White Sox player Floyd Robinson goes 6 for 6 (all singles).

1962 Mariner program: Mariner 1 spacecraft flies erratically several minutes after launch and has to be destroyed.

1963 Birth of Emily Saliers, American singer (Indigo Girls)

1963 The Beatles release “Introducing the Beatles”.

1964 Birth of Patrick Labyorteaux, American actor

1964 Steve Ballesteros wins the Britsh Golf Open.

1965 Birth of Shawn Michaels, American professional wrestler

1966 Birth of Tim Brown, American football player

1967 Atlanta Braves use a record five pitchers in the 9th inning.

1967 Birth of Pat Badger; heavy metal bassist (Extreme-More Than Words).

1967 Death of Carl Sandburg, American poet (b. 1878)

1967 Jimi Hendrix quits as opening act of The Monkees’ tour.

1969 USSR launches Sputnik 50 and Molniya 1-12 communications satellite.

1970 Birth of Jason Becker, American musician

1970 Death of Fritz Kortner (original name, Fritz Kohn) in Munich, Germany (born in Vienna, Austria); theater actor and director.

1971 Birth of Kristine Lilly, American soccer player

1972 27.53 cm (10.84 inches) of rainfall, Fort Ripley, Minnesota (state 24-hour record).

1972 Birth of Keyshawn Johnson, American football player

1972 Sweden and the European Economic Community make a free trade agreement.

1972 Venera 8 makes soft landing on Venus.

1973 Birth of Mike Sweeney, baseball player

1973 Sue Berning wins her third US Golf Open championship.

1974 Birth of Daddy Kev, American record producer and engineer

1974 Death of Wayne Morse, U.S. Senator from Oregon (b. 1900)

1975 US House of Representatives votes to restore citizenship to General Robert E Lee.

1977 Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping is restored to power.

1978 Birth of Dennis Rommedahl, Danish footballer

1979 Death of S�ndor Kocsis, Hungarian footballer (b. 1929)

1980 Birth of Kate Ryan; Belgian singer.

1981 Turkish terrorist Mehmet Ali Agca sentenced in a Rome court to life in prison.

1982 Academic Text Processing Service established in Seattle, Washington.

1983 Australian Dick Smith completes first solo helicopter flight around the world.

1983 Birth of Arsenium, Moldovan singer (O-Zone)

1983 In Western Iran, a magnitude 5.6 earthquake occurs.

1984 Birth of Kinzie Kenner, American actress

1984 Kathy Whitworth wins a record 85th pro golf tournament.

1985 Birth of Takudzwa Ngwenya; American rugby player.

1986 House of Representatives impeaches Judge Harry E Claiborne on tax evasion.

1987 Death of Jack Lescoulie, American actor (born 1917).

1987 Palestinian cartoonist Naji Salim al-Ali is shot in London; he dies August 28.

1987 Said Aouita of Morroco sets the 5km record (12:58.39) in Rome, Italy.

1987 Soyuz TM-3 launched with three cosmonauts (one Syrian).

1987 US begins escorting re-flagged Kuwaiti tankers in Persian Gulf.

1988 500 US scientists pledge to boycott Pentagon germ-warfare research.

1988 Birth of Constantin, Prince of Nassau.

1988 Luigi Lucioni, Italian landscape painter (opera stars), dies at age 87.

1989 Birth of Federico Esswein, argentinian actor

1989 Death of Martti Talvela, Finnish bass (born 1935).

1990 Death of Manuel Puig, Argentinian writer (born 1932).

1990 Greg Lemond of US wins bicycling’s third tour de France.

1990 Nick Faldo of England wins the British Open Golf championship.

1991 Serial killer Jeffrey Dahmer is arrested after the remains of 11 men and boys are found in his Milwaukee apartment.

1991 Serial killer Jeffrey Dahmer is arrested after the remains of 11 men and boys are found in his Milwaukee, Wisconsin apartment. Dahmer confesses to killing 17 males in 1978.

1992 Birth of Selena Gomez, American actress.

1992 Near Medellfn, Colombian drug lord Pablo Escobar escapes from his luxury prison fearing extradition to the United States.

1992 Near Medell?n, Colombian drug lord Pablo Escobar escapes from his luxury prison, fearing extradition to the United States.

1997 The second Blue Water Bridge opens between Port Huron, Michigan and Sarnia, Ontario.

1998 Birth of Madison Pettis, American actress.

1998 Death of Hermann Prey, German bass-baritone (born 1929).

1999 Persecution of Falun Gong begins. Falun Gong is banned in the People’s Republic of China under Jiang Zemin.

2000 Death of Eric Christmas, British actor (b. 1916)

2001 Death of Frances Rappaport Horwich (Miss Frances), children’s show host (born 1907).

2002 Birth of Prince Felix of Denmark, Prince of Denmark.

2002 Israel assassinates Salah Shahade, the Commander-in-Chief of Hamas’s military arm, the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades, along with 14 civilians.

2003 Death of Qusay Hussein, son of Saddam Hussein (b. 1966)

2003 Members of 101st Airborne of the United States, aided by Special Forces, attack a compound in Iraq, killing Saddam Hussein’s sons Uday and Qusay, along with Mustapha Hussein, Qusay’s 14-year old son, and a bodyguard.

2003 Uday and Qusay Hussein, sons of Saddam Hussein, are killed by the U.S. military in Iraq, after being tipped off by an informant.

2004 Death of Sacha Distel, French singer (b. 1933)

2004 Production of the 2004 model Corvette ends, also ending production of the C5 model Corvette. Nearly 250,000 were built since the 1997 model.

2004 The Old Bridge of Mostar in Bosnia-Herzegovina is reconstructed and reopened after being destroyed by Bosnian Croat forces on November 9, 1993.

2005 A Brazilian electrician, Jean Charles de Menezes, is shot dead at a London underground station by police who allegedly mistake him for a suicide bomber.

2005 A man is shot dead by police as the hunt begins for the London Bombers. See 7 July 2005 London bombings and 21 July 2005 London bombings

2005 Death of Jean Charles de Menezes, Brazilian electrician (shot) (b. 1978)

2005 The last Buick LeSabre rolls off the assembly line.

2006 Canada defeats USA 15-11 in the 2006 World Lacrosse Championship. This marks only the second time the USA had not won the gold medal, and only the second time Canada had won the gold. Geoff Snider is announced as Most Valuable Player.

2006 Death of JosT Antonio Delgado, Venezuelan mountain climber (born 1965).

2007 Death of Mike Coolbaugh, American baseball player and coach (born 1972).

2007 Floods cause chaos through wide areas of Britain, especially the counties of Gloucestershire, Warwickshire, Worcestershire and Oxfordshire, leaving hundreds homeless and thousands of vehicles stranded on major roads.

2007 Parliamentary elections take place in Turkey. Recep Tayyip Erdogan of the Justice and Development Party is elected Prime Minister with almost 47 percent of votes.

2007 Yokozuna Asashoryu conquers the Emperor’s Cup at the Nagoya Grand Sumo Tournament (Nagoya Basho) in Nagoya, Japan.

2008 The United Progressive Alliance-led government in India survives a crucial no-confidence vote, based on disagreements between the Indian National Congress and Left Front, over the Indo-US nuclear deal.

2009 The longest (6.5 minutes) total solar eclipse of the 21st century sweeps across a narrow (250km wide) swathe from India through to China.